3182082

  • Phone Number3182082
  • CompanyNextel Communications
  • StateLouisiana
  • CityShreveport, LA
  • CountyCaddo
  • Prefix208
  • Area Code318
  • UsageCell Number

3182086746 USA Telephone Phone State > Louisiana 318-208-6746, Shreveport, LA, Caddo

Shreveport, LA

Louisiana

Louisiana (/luːˌiːziˈænə/ or /ˌluːziˈænə/; French: État de Louisiane, [lwizjan] ( ); Louisiana Creole: Léta de la Lwizyàn) is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 31st most extensive and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge Parish, and the largest by land area is Plaqumines.

Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp. The two "Deltas" are located in Monroe, the parish seat of Ouachita Parish, Shreveport, the parish seat of Caddo Parish, and Alexandria, the parish seat of Rapides Parish, for the small Delta, and Monroe, Lake Charles, and New Orleans for the large Delta. They are referred to as Deltas because they form a perfect triangle shape when the points are lined up. These contain a rich southern biota; typical examples include birds such as ibis and egrets. There are also many species of tree frogs, and fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, and has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas. These support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of orchids and carnivorous plants.

Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so strongly influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, and African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the current Louisiana State had been both a French colony and a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African slaves as laborers in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, and in 1915, English was made the only official language of the state. Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, and four that have not yet received recognition.

Etymology

Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane, meaning "Land of Louis". Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canadian border, and included a small part of what is now southwestern Canada.

Geology

The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea. As Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana slowly developed, over millions of years, from water into land, and from north to south. The oldest rocks are exposed in the north, in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Tertiary Era, some 60 million years ago. The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana.

The youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 7,500 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, Lafourche, the modern Mississippi, and now the Atchafalaya. The sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River.

In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, and the relatively new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces. Their age and distribution can be largely related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter.

Salt domes are also found in Louisiana. Their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state; one of the most familiar is Avery Island. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt; they also serve as underground traps for oil and gas.

Geography

Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas; to the north by Arkansas; to the east by the state of Mississippi; and to the south by the Gulf of Mexico. The surface of the state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, and the alluvial along the coast.

The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, and barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles (52,000 km2). This area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 miles (1,000 km) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico; the Red River; the Ouachita River and its branches; and other minor streams (some of which are called bayous).

The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles (15 to 100 km), and along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles (15 km) across. The Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits (known as a levee), from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile (3 m/km). The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features.

The higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles (65,000 km2). They consist of prairie and woodlands. The elevations above sea level range from 10 feet (3 m) at the coast and swamp lands to 50 and 60 feet (15–18 m) at the prairie and alluvial lands. In the uplands and hills, the elevations rise to Driskill Mountain, the highest point in the state at only 535 feet (163 m) above sea level.

Besides the navigable waterways already named, there are the Sabine, forming the western boundary; and the Pearl, the eastern boundary; the Calcasieu (KAL-cah-shew), the Mermentau, the Vermilion, Bayou Teche, the Atchafalaya (a-CHAF-a-LI-a), the Boeuf (bEHf), Bayou Lafourche, the Courtableau River, Bayou D'Arbonne, the Macon River, the Tensas (TEN-saw), Amite River, the Tchefuncte (CHA-Funk-ta), the Tickfaw, the Natalbany River, and a number of other smaller streams, constituting a natural system of navigable waterways, aggregating over 4,000 miles (6,400 km) long.

The state also has political jurisdiction over the approximately 3-mile (4.8 km)-wide portion of subsea land of the inner continental shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. Through a peculiarity of the political geography of the United States, this is substantially less than the 9-mile (14 km)-wide jurisdiction of nearby states Texas and Florida, which, like Louisiana, have extensive Gulf coastlines.

The southern coast of Louisiana in the United States is among the fastest-disappearing areas in the world. This has largely resulted from human mismanagement of the coast (see Wetlands of Louisiana). At one time, the land was added to when spring floods from the Mississippi River added sediment and stimulated marsh growth; the land is now shrinking. There are multiple causes.

Artificial levees block spring flood water that would bring fresh water and sediment to marshes. Swamps have been extensively logged, leaving canals and ditches that allow saline water to move inland. Canals dug for the oil and gas industry also allow storms to move sea water inland, where it damages swamps and marshes. Rising sea waters have exacerbated the problem. Some researchers estimate that the state is losing a land mass equivalent to 30 football fields every day. There are many proposals to save coastal areas by reducing human damage, including restoring natural floods from the Mississippi. Without such restoration, coastal communities will continue to disappear. And as the communities disappear, more and more people are leaving the region. Since the coastal wetlands support an economically important coastal fishery, the loss of wetlands is adversely affecting this industry.

Climate

Louisiana has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), perhaps the most "classic" example of a humid subtropical climate of all the Southcentral states. It has long, hot, humid summers and short, mild winters. The subtropical characteristics of the state are due in large part to the influence of the Gulf of Mexico, which at its farthest point is no more than 200 miles (320 km) away.

Rain is frequent throughout the year, although the summer is slightly wetter than the rest of the year. There is a dip in precipitation in October. Southern Louisiana receives far more copious rainfall, especially during the winter months. Summers in Louisiana have high temperatures from mid-June to mid-September averaging 90 °F (32 °C) or more, and overnight lows averaging above 70 °F (22 °C).

In the summer, the extreme maximum temperature is much warmer in the north than in the south, with temperatures near the Gulf of Mexico occasionally reaching 100 °F (38 °C), although temperatures above 95 °F (35 °C) are commonplace. In northern Louisiana, the temperatures reach above 105 °F (41 °C) in the summer.

Temperatures are generally mildly warm in the winter in the southern part of the state, with highs around New Orleans, Baton Rouge, the rest of south Louisiana, and the Gulf of Mexico averaging 66 °F (19 °C). The northern part of the state is mildly cool in the winter, with highs averaging 59 °F (15 °C). The overnight lows in the winter average well above freezing throughout the state, with 46 °F (8 °C) the average near the Gulf and an average low of 37 °F (3 °C) in the winter in the northern part of the state.

Louisiana gets some cold fronts, which frequently drop the temperatures below 20 °F (−8 °C) in the northern part of the state, but almost never do so in the southern part of the state. Snow is not very common near the Gulf of Mexico, although residents in the northern parts of the state can expect one to three snowfalls per year, with the frequency increasing northwards. Louisiana's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F (46 °C) in Plain Dealing on August 10, 1936, while the coldest recorded temperature is −16 °F (−27 °C) at Minden on February 13, 1899.

Louisiana is often affected by tropical cyclones and is very vulnerable to strikes by major hurricanes, particularly the lowlands around and in the New Orleans area. The unique geography of the region, with the many bayous, marshes and inlets, can result in water damage across a wide area from major hurricanes. The area is also prone to frequent thunderstorms, especially in the summer.

The entire state averages over 60 days of thunderstorms a year, more than any other state except Florida. Louisiana averages 27 tornadoes annually. The entire state is vulnerable to a tornado strike, with the extreme southern portion of the state slightly less so than the rest of the state. Tornadoes are more common from January to March in the southern part of the state, and from February through March in the northern part of the state.

Hurricanes since 1950

  • October 5, 2013, Hurricane Karen hit the Louisiana Gulf Coast
  • August 28–29, 2012, Hurricane Isaac hits southeast Louisiana 7 years after Katrina (2005)
  • September 1, 2008, Gustav made landfall along the coast near Cocodrie in southeastern Louisiana. As late as August 31 it had been projected by the National Hurricane Center that the hurricane would remain at Category 3 or above on September 1, but in the event the center of Gustav made landfall as a strong Category 2 hurricane (1 mph below Category 3), and dropped to Category 1 soon after. As a result of NHC's forecasts, a massive evacuation of New Orleans took place after many residents having failed to leave for Katrina in 2005. A significant number of deaths were caused by or attributed to Gustav. Around 1.5 million people were without power in Louisiana on September 1.
  • September 24, 2005, Rita (Category 3 at landfall) struck southwestern Louisiana, flooding many parishes and cities along the coast, including Cameron Parish, Lake Charles, and other towns. The storm's winds weakened the damaged levees in New Orleans and caused renewed flooding in parts of the city.
  • August 29, 2005, Katrina (Category 3 at landfall) struck and devastated southeastern Louisiana, where it breached and undermined levees in New Orleans, causing 80% of the city to flood. Most people had been evacuated, but the majority of the population became homeless. The city was virtually closed until October. It is estimated that more than two million people in the Gulf region were displaced by the hurricane, and that more than 1,500 fatalities resulted in Louisiana alone. A public outcry criticized governments at the local, state, and federal levels, for lack of preparation and slowness of response. Louisiana residents relocated across the country for temporary housing, and many have not returned.
  • Oct 3, 2002, Lili (Category 1 at landfall)
  • August 1992, Andrew (Category 3 at landfall) struck south-central Louisiana. It killed four people; knocked out power to nearly 150,000 citizens; and destroyed crops worth hundreds of millions of dollars.
  • August 1969, Camille (Category 5) caused a 23.4 ft (7.1 m) storm surge and killed 250 people. Although Camille officially made landfall in Mississippi and the worst damage occurred there, it also had effects in Louisiana. New Orleans remained dry, with the exception of mild rain-generated flooding in the most low-lying areas.
  • September 9, 1965, Betsy (Category 3 at landfall) came ashore in Louisiana, causing massive destruction as the first hurricane in history to cause one billion dollars in damage (over ten billion in inflation-adjusted USD). The storm hit New Orleans and flooded nearly 35% of the city (including the Lower 9th Ward, Gentilly, and parts of Mid-City). The death toll in the state was 76.
  • June 1957, Audrey (Category 4) devastated southwest Louisiana, destroying or severely damaging 60–80 percent of the homes and businesses from Cameron to Grand Chenier. 40,000 people were left homeless and more than 300 people in the state died.
  • August 15-17th, 1915: A hurricane made landfall just west of Galveston. Gales howled throughout Cameron and Vermilion Parishes and as far east as Mobile. Produced tides of 11 feet at Cameron (called Leesburg at the time), 10 feet at Grand Cheniere, and 9.5 feet at Marsh Island; Grand Isle reported water 6 feet deep across the city. The light keeper at the Sabine Pass lighthouse had to turn the lens by hand, as vibrations caused by the wave action put the clockwork out of order. At Sabine Bank, 17 miles offshore the Mouth of the Sabine, damage was noted. Damage estimates for Louisiana and Texas totaled around $50 million. <http://www.thecajuns.com/lahurricanes.htm#August_15-17th,_1915>

1915 over 300 people drowned below Montegut - 4 can be identified as white, none of the others have been identified and are assumed to be Indians. The Indian settlement was about 10 miles below Montegut, called by the Indians - Taire-bonne - is now in swamp and can only be reached by boat. This hurricane caused the survivors to move to higher ground.

Protected areas

Owing to its location and geology, the state has high biological diversity. Some vital areas, such as southwestern prairie, have experienced a loss in excess of 98 percent. The pine flatwoods are also at great risk, mostly from fire suppression and urban sprawl. There is not yet a properly organized system of natural areas to represent and protect Louisiana's biological diversity. Such a system would consist of a protected system of core areas linked by biological corridors, such as Florida is planning.

Louisiana contains a number of areas which are, in varying degrees, protected from human intervention. In addition to National Park Service sites and areas and a United States National Forest, Louisiana operates a system of state parks, state historic sites, one state preservation area, one state forest, and many Wildlife Management Areas. The Nature Conservancy also owns and manages a set of natural areas.

One of Louisiana's largest natural areas is Kisatchie National Forest. It is some 600,000 acres in area, more than half of which is vital flatwoods vegetation, which supports many rare plant and animal species. These include the Louisiana pine snake and Red-cockaded woodpecker. The system of protected cypress swamps around Lake Pontchartrain provides another large and important natural area, with southern wetland species including egrets, alligators, and sturgeon. At least 12 core areas would be needed to build a "protected areas system" for the state; these would range from southwestern prairies, to the Pearl River Floodplain in the east, to the Mississippi River alluvial swamps in the north.

The Louisiana Natural and Scenic Rivers System provides a degree of protection for 48 rivers, streams and bayous in the state. It is administered by the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries.

National Park Service

Historic or scenic areas managed, protected, or otherwise recognized by the National Park Service include:

  • Atchafalaya National Heritage Area in Ascension Parish;
  • Cane River National Heritage Area near Natchitoches;
  • Cane River Creole National Historical Park near Natchitoches;
  • Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, headquartered in New Orleans, with units in St. Bernard Parish, Barataria (Crown Point), and Acadiana (Lafayette);
  • Poverty Point National Monument at Epps, Louisiana; and
  • Saline Bayou, a designated National Wild and Scenic River near Winn Parish in northern Louisiana.

US Forest Service

  • Kisatchie National Forest is Louisiana's only national forest. It includes 600,000 acres in central and north Louisiana with large areas of flatwoods and longleaf pine forest.

State parks and recreational areas

Louisiana operates a system of 22 state parks, 17 state historic sites and one state preservation area.

Transportation

The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development is the state government organization in charge of maintaining public transportation, roadways, bridges, canals, select levees, floodplain management, port facilities, commercial vehicles, and aviation which includes 69 airports.

The Intracoastal Waterway is an important means of transporting commercial goods such as petroleum and petroleum products, agricultural produce, building materials and manufactured goods.

In 2011, Louisiana ranked among the five deadliest states for debris/litter-caused vehicle accidents per total number of registered vehicles and population size. Figures derived from the NTSHA show at least 25 persons in Louisiana were killed per year in motor vehicle collisions with non-fixed objects, including debris, dumped litter, animals and their carcasses.

History

Prehistory

Louisiana was inhabited by Native Americans for many millennia before the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century. During the Middle Archaic period, Louisiana was the site of the earliest mound complex in North America and one of the earliest dated, complex constructions in the Americas, the Watson Brake site near present-day Monroe. An 11-mound complex, it was built about 5400 BP (3500 BCE). The Middle Archaic sites of Caney and Frenchman's Bend have also been securely dated to 5600–5000 BP, demonstrating that seasonal hunter-gatherers organized to build complex constructions in present-day northern Louisiana. The Hedgepeth Site in Lincoln Parish is more recent, dated to 5200–4500 BP.

Nearly 2,000 years later, Poverty Point, the largest and best-known Late Archaic site in the state, was built. Modern-day Epps developed near it. The Poverty Point culture may have reached its peak around 1500 BCE, making it the first complex culture, and possibly the first tribal culture in North America. It lasted until approximately 700 BCE.

The Poverty Point culture was followed by the Tchefuncte and Lake Cormorant cultures of the Tchula period, local manifestations of Early Woodland period. The Tchefuncte culture were the first people in Louisiana to make large amounts of pottery. These cultures lasted until 200 CE. The Middle Woodland period starts in Louisiana with the Marksville culture in the southern and eastern part of the state and the Fourche Maline culture in the northwestern part of the state. The Marksville culture takes its name from the Marksville Prehistoric Indian Site in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana.

These cultures were contemporaneous with the Hopewell cultures of Ohio and Illinois, and participated in the Hopewell Exchange Network. Trade with peoples to the southwest brought the bow and arrow. The first burial mounds were built at this time. Political power begins to be consolidated as the first platform mounds at ritual centers are constructed for the developing hereditary political and religious leadership.

By 400 CE in the southern part of the state the Late Woodland period had begun with the Baytown culture. Population increased dramatically and there is strong evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity. Many Coles Creek sites were erected over earlier Woodland period mortuary mounds. Scholars have speculated that emerging elites were symbolically and physically appropriating dead ancestors to emphasize and project their own authority.

The Mississippian period in Louisiana was when Plaquemine and the Caddoan Mississippian cultures developed and extensive maize agriculture was adopted. The Plaquemine culture in the lower Mississippi River Valley in western Mississippi and eastern Louisiana began in 1200 CE and continued to about 1400 CE. Good examples of this culture are the Medora Site in West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, and the Emerald Mound, Winterville and Holly Bluff sites in Mississippi.

Plaquemine culture was contemporaneous with the Middle Mississippian culture represented by the primary settlement, the Cahokia site near St. Louis, Missouri. This group is considered ancestral to the Natchez and Taensa Peoples.

By 1000 CE in the northwestern part of the state, the Fourche Maline culture had evolved into the Caddoan Mississippian culture. The Caddoan Mississippians covered a large territory, including what is now eastern Oklahoma, western Arkansas, northeast Texas, and northwest Louisiana. Archeological evidence has demonstrated that the cultural continuity is unbroken from prehistory to the present. The Caddo and related Caddo language speakers in prehistoric times and at first European contact were the direct ancestors of the modern Caddo Nation of Oklahoma of today.

Many current place names in the state, including Atchafalaya, Natchitouches (now spelled Natchitoches), Caddo, Houma, Tangipahoa, and Avoyel (as Avoyelles), are transliterations of those used in various Native American languages.

Exploration and colonization by Europeans

The first European explorers to visit Louisiana came in 1528 when a Spanish expedition led by Panfilo de Narváez located the mouth of the Mississippi River. In 1542, Hernando de Soto's expedition skirted to the north and west of the state (encountering Caddo and Tunica groups) and then followed the Mississippi River down to the Gulf of Mexico in 1543. Spanish interest in Louisiana then lay dormant.

In the late 17th century, French and French Canadian expeditions, which included sovereign, religious and commercial aims, established a foothold on the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast. With its first settlements, France lay claim to a vast region of North America and set out to establish a commercial empire and French nation stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada.

In 1682, the French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle named the region Louisiana to honor France's King Louis XIV. The first permanent settlement, Fort Maurepas (at what is now Ocean Springs, Mississippi, near Biloxi), was founded by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, a French military officer from Canada, in 1699. By then the French had also built a small fort at the mouth of the Mississippi at a settlement they named La Balise (or La Balize), "seamark" in French. By 1721 they built a 62-foot (19 m) wooden lighthouse-type structure to guide ships on the river.

The French colony of Louisiana originally claimed all the land on both sides of the Mississippi River and north to French territory in Canada. The following States were part of Louisiana: Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota.

The settlement of Natchitoches (along the Red River in present-day northwest Louisiana) was established in 1714 by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, making it the oldest permanent European settlement in the Louisiana Purchase territory. The French settlement had two purposes: to establish trade with the Spanish in Texas, and to deter Spanish advances into Louisiana. Also, the northern terminus of the Old San Antonio Road was at Natchitoches. The settlement soon became a flourishing river port and crossroads, giving rise to vast cotton kingdoms along the river. Over time, planters developed large plantations and built fine homes in a growing town. This became a pattern repeated in New Orleans and other places.

Louisiana's French settlements contributed to further exploration and outposts, concentrated along the banks of the Mississippi and its major tributaries, from Louisiana to as far north as the region called the Illinois Country, around present-day St. Louis, Missouri. See also: French colonization of the Americas

Initially Mobile, Alabama, and Biloxi, Mississippi, functioned as the capital of the colony. Recognizing the importance of the Mississippi River to trade and military interests, France made New Orleans the seat of civilian and military authority in 1722. From then until the United States acquired the territory in the Louisiana Purchase on December 20, 1803, France and Spain traded control of the region's colonial empire.

In the 1720s, German immigrants settled along the Mississippi River in a region referred to as the German Coast.

France ceded most of its territory to the east of the Mississippi to Great Britain in the aftermath of Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War or French and Indian War, as it is known in North America. It retained the area around New Orleans and the parishes around Lake Pontchartrain. The rest of Louisiana became a colony of Spain after the Seven Years' War by the Treaty of Fontainebleau of 1763.

In 1765, during the period of Spanish rule, several thousand French-speaking refugees from the region of Acadia (now Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, Canada) made their way to Louisiana after having been expelled from their homelands by the British during the French and Indian War. They settled chiefly in the southwestern Louisiana region now called Acadiana. The Spanish, eager to gain more Catholic settlers, welcomed the Acadian refugees. Cajuns descend from these Acadian refugees.

Spanish Canary Islanders, called Isleños, emigrated from the Canary Islands of Spain to Louisiana under the Spanish crown between 1778 and 1783.

In 1800, France's Napoleon Bonaparte reacquired Louisiana from Spain in the Treaty of San Ildefonso, an arrangement kept secret for two years.

Expansion of slavery

Bienville brought the first two African slaves to Louisiana in 1708, transporting them from a French colony in the West Indies. In 1709, French financier Antoine Crozat obtained a monopoly of commerce in La Louisiane, which extended from the Gulf of Mexico to what is now Illinois. "That concession allowed him to bring in a cargo of blacks from Africa every year," the British historian Hugh Thomas wrote. Physical conditions, including disease, were so harsh there was high mortality among both the colonists and the slaves, resulting in continuing demand and importation of slaves.

Starting in 1719, traders began to import slaves in higher numbers; two French ships, the Du Maine and the Aurore, arrived in New Orleans carrying more than 500 black slaves coming from Africa. Previous slaves in Louisiana had been transported from French colonies in the West Indies. By the end of 1721, New Orleans counted 1256 inhabitants, of which about half were slaves.

With the growth in slavery, in 1724, the colony adopted Louis XV’s “Code Noir” (Black Code) in Louisiana. Louis XIV’s “Code Noir” dates to the late seventeenth century. It was nominally to protect the living and working conditions for African slaves. Historians have assessed it also as a way to keep slaves more content by granting some freedoms and protecting their families. Officials were aware of the risk of the small number of colonists in hostile territory. In keeping with Catholic principles, the Code’s forbade the separation of family members, especially any selling of young children away from their parents. In those years, a young person was considered an adult by the age of thirteen, and subject to sale away from the family from that age. Masters relied on slave labor for cultivation of their land and could not afford to spark off rebellions that may have turned into violence, or to lose many slaves from their running away. The fugitive slaves, called maroons, could easily hide in the backcountry of the bayous and survive in small settlements. The word “maroon” comes from the French “marron,” derived from the Spanish “cimarrón”; it means feral or fugitive.

Article II of the Code Noir of 1724, required masters to provide their slaves with religious education, meaning Roman Catholicism. Sunday was to be a day of rest for slaves. On days off, slaves were expected to feed and take care of themselves. During the 1740s economic crisis in the colony, masters had trouble feeding their slaves and themselves. Giving them time off also effectively gave more power to slaves, who started cultivating their own gardens and crafting items for sale as their own property. They began to participate in the economic development of the colony while at the same time increasing independence and self-subsistence.

The Code forbade mixed marriages (article VI) but did little to protect slave women from sexual advances by masters, overseers or other slaves. On balance, the Code benefitted the masters but had more protections and flexibility than did the institution of slavery in the southern Thirteen Colonies.

In the late 18th century, the last Spanish governor of the Louisiana territory wrote:

"Truly, it is impossible for lower Louisiana to get along without slaves" and with the use of slaves, the colony had been "making great strides toward prosperity and wealth."

When the United States made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, it was soon accepted that enslaved Africans could be brought to Louisiana as easily as they were brought to neighboring Mississippi, though it violated U.S. law to do so. Despite demands by United States Rep. James Hillhouse and by the pamphleteer Thomas Paine to enforce existing federal law against slavery in the newly acquired territory, slavery prevailed because it was the source of great profits and the lowest-cost labor.

At the start of the 19th century, Louisiana was a small producer of sugar with a relatively small number of slaves, compared to Saint-Domingue and the West Indies. It soon became a major sugar producer as new settlers arrived to develop plantations. William C. C. Claiborne, Louisiana's first United States governor, said that African slave labor was needed because white laborers "cannot be had in this unhealthy climate." Hugh Thomas wrote that Claiborne was unable to enforce the abolition of the African slave trade, which the US and Great Britain adopted in 1808. The United States continued to protect the domestic slave trade, including the coastwise trade, the transport of slaves by ship along the Atlantic Coast and to New Orleans and other Gulf ports.

As the Deep South was developed for both cotton and sugar in the nineteenth century, demand increased for slaves. This resulted in the first half of the 19th century in a massive forced migration through the slave trade of more than one million African Americans from the Upper South, where surplus labor was sold, to the Deep South. Many traders brought slaves to New Orleans for domestic sale; by 1840 New Orleans had the largest slave market in the country, and was the third-largest city, and one of the wealthiest.

The United States adapted Louisiana law by adding parts of US or southern state laws. The Louisiana Black Code of 1806 made the cruel punishment of slaves a crime, but masters and overseers were seldom prosecuted for such acts.

Haitian migration and influence

Spanish control of Louisiana lasted from 1763 to 1800. Beginning in the 1790s, waves of immigration took place from Saint-Domingue, following a slave rebellion that started in 1791. Over the next decade, thousands of migrants landed in Louisiana from the island, including ethnic Europeans, free people of color, and African slaves, some of the latter brought in by each free group. They greatly increased the French-speaking population in New Orleans and Louisiana, as well as the number of Africans, and the slaves reinforced African culture in the city. The process of gaining independence in Saint-Domingue was complex, but uprisings continued. In 1803, France pulled out its surviving troops from the island, having suffered the loss of two-thirds sent to the island two years before, mostly to yellow fever. In 1804, Haiti, the second republic in the western hemisphere, proclaimed its independence, achieved by slave leaders.

Pierre Clément de Laussat (Governor of Louisiana, 1803) said: "Saint-Domingue was, of all our colonies in the Antilles, the one whose mentality and customs influenced Louisiana the most."

Purchase by the United States (1803)

When the United States won its independence from Great Britain in 1783, one of its major concerns was having a European power on its western boundary, and the need for unrestricted access to the Mississippi River. As American settlers pushed west, they found that the Appalachian Mountains provided a barrier to shipping goods eastward. The easiest way to ship produce was to use a flatboat to float it down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to the port of New Orleans, from whence goods could be put on ocean-going vessels. The problem with this route was that the Spanish owned both sides of the Mississippi below Natchez.

Napoleon's ambitions in Louisiana involved the creation of a new empire centered on the Caribbean sugar trade. By the terms of the Treaty of Amiens of 1800, Great Britain returned ownership of the islands of Martinique and Guadaloupe to the French. Napoleon looked upon Louisiana as a depot for these sugar islands, and as a buffer to U.S. settlement. In October 1801 he sent a large military force to take back Saint-Domingue, then under control of Toussaint Louverture after a slave rebellion.

When the army led by Napoleon's brother-in-law Leclerc was defeated, Napoleon decided to sell Louisiana.

Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, was disturbed by Napoleon's plans to re-establish French colonies in America. With the possession of New Orleans, Napoleon could close the Mississippi to U.S. commerce at any time. Jefferson authorized Robert R. Livingston, U.S. Minister to France, to negotiate for the purchase of the City of New Orleans, portions of the east bank of the Mississippi, and free navigation of the river for U.S. commerce. Livingston was authorized to pay up to $2 million.

An official transfer of Louisiana to French ownership had not yet taken place, and Napoleon's deal with the Spanish was a poorly kept secret on the frontier. On October 18, 1802, however, Juan Ventura Morales, Acting Intendant of Louisiana, made public the intention of Spain to revoke the right of deposit at New Orleans for all cargo from the United States. The closure of this vital port to the United States caused anger and consternation. Commerce in the west was virtually blockaded. Historians believe that the revocation of the right of deposit was prompted by abuses by the Americans, particularly smuggling, and not by French intrigues as was believed at the time. President Jefferson ignored public pressure for war with France, and appointed James Monroe a special envoy to Napoleon, to assist in obtaining New Orleans for the United States. Jefferson also raised the authorized expenditure to $10 million.

However, on April 11, 1803, French Foreign Minister Talleyrand surprised Livingston by asking how much the United States was prepared to pay for the entirety of Louisiana, not just New Orleans and the surrounding area (as Livingston's instructions covered). Monroe agreed with Livingston that Napoleon might withdraw this offer at any time (leaving them with no ability to obtain the desired New Orleans area), and that approval from President Jefferson might take months, so Livingston and Monroe decided to open negotiations immediately. By April 30, they closed a deal for the purchase of the entire Louisiana territory of 828,000 square miles (2,100,000 km2) for 60 million Francs (approximately $15 million).

Part of this sum, $3.5 million, was used to forgive debts owed by France to the United States. The payment was made in United States bonds, which Napoleon sold at face value to the Dutch firm of Hope and Company, and the British banking house of Baring, at a discount of 87½ per each $100 unit. As a result, France received only $8,831,250 in cash for Louisiana. Dutiful English banker Alexander Baring conferred with Marbois in Paris, shuttled to the United States to pick up the bonds, took them to Britain, and returned to France with the money – which Napoleon used to wage war against Baring's own country.

When news of the purchase reached the United States, Jefferson was surprised. He had authorized the expenditure of $10 million for a port city, and instead received treaties committing the government to spend $15 million on a land package which would double the size of the country. Jefferson's political opponents in the Federalist Party argued the Louisiana purchase was a worthless desert, and that the Constitution did not provide for the acquisition of new land or negotiating treaties without the consent of the Senate. What really worried the opposition was the new states which would inevitably be carved from the Louisiana territory, strengthening Western and Southern interests in Congress, and further reducing the influence of New England Federalists in national affairs. President Jefferson was an enthusiastic supporter of westward expansion, and held firm in his support for the treaty. Despite Federalist objections, the U.S. Senate ratified the Louisiana treaty on October 20, 1803.

A transfer ceremony was held in New Orleans on November 29, 1803. Since the Louisiana territory had never officially been turned over to the French, the Spanish took down their flag, and the French raised theirs. The following day, General James Wilkinson accepted possession of New Orleans for the United States. A similar ceremony was held in St. Louis on March 9, 1804, when a French tricolor was raised near the river, replacing the Spanish national flag. The following day, Captain Amos Stoddard of the First U.S. Artillery marched his troops into town and had the American flag run up the fort's flagpole. The Louisiana territory was officially transferred to the United States government, represented by Meriwether Lewis.

The Louisiana Territory, purchased for less than 3 cents an acre, doubled the size of the United States overnight, without a war or the loss of a single American life, and set a precedent for the purchase of territory. It opened the way for the eventual expansion of the United States across the continent to the Pacific.

Statehood (1812)

Louisiana became the eighteenth U.S. State on April 30, 1812.

By 1840 New Orleans had the biggest slave market in the United States, which contributed greatly to the economy. It had become one of the wealthiest cities and the third largest city in the nation. The ban on the African slave trade and importation of slaves had increased demand in the domestic market. During these decades after the American Revolutionary War, more than one million enslaved African Americans underwent forced migration from the Upper South to the Deep South, two thirds of them in the slave trade. Others were transported by their masters as slaveholders moved west for new lands.

With changing agriculture in the Upper South as planters shifted from tobacco to less labor-intensive mixed agriculture, planters had excess laborers. Many sold slaves to traders to take to the Deep South. Slaves were driven by traders overland from the Upper South or transported to New Orleans and other coastal markets by ship in the coastwise slave trade. After sales in New Orleans, steamboats operating on the Mississippi transported slaves upstream to markets or plantation destinations at Natchez and Memphis.

Secession and the Civil War (1860–1865)

According to the 1860 census, 331,726 people were enslaved, nearly 47% of the state's total population of 708,002. Enfranchised elite whites' strong economic interest in maintaining the slave system contributed to Louisiana's decision to secede from the Union in 1861. It followed other Southern states in seceding after the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States. Louisiana's secession was announced on January 26, 1861, and it became part of the Confederate States of America.

The state was quickly defeated in the Civil War, a result of Union strategy to cut the Confederacy in two by seizing the Mississippi. Federal troops captured New Orleans on April 25, 1862. Because a large part of the population had Union sympathies (or compatible commercial interests), the Federal government took the unusual step of designating the areas of Louisiana under Federal control as a state within the Union, with its own elected representatives to the U.S. Congress.

Post Civil War (1865–1945)

Following the Civil War and emancipation of slaves, violence rose in the South as the war was carried on by paramilitary and private groups. Some ex-Confederate dominated legislatures passed Black Codes to regulate freedmen and generally refused to give them suffrage, nor to extend voting rights to African Americans who had been free before the war and had sometimes obtained education and property (as in New Orleans.) Following the Memphis Riots of 1866 and the New Orleans Riot the same year, Congress developed the Fourteenth Amendment to provide for suffrage and full citizenship for freedmen, and passed Reconstruction Act establishing military districts for those states where conditions were considered the worst, including Louisiana. It was grouped with Texas in what was administered as the Fifth Military District.

African Americans began to live as citizens with some measure of equality before the law. Both freedmen and people of color who had been free before the war began to make more advances in education, family stability and jobs. At the same time, there was tremendous social volatility in the aftermath of war, with many whites actively resisting defeat. White insurgents mobilized to enforce white supremacy, first in Ku Klux Klan chapters.

By 1877, when federal forces were withdrawn, white Democrats in Louisiana and other states had regained control of state legislatures, often by paramilitary groups suppressing black voting through intimidation and violence. Following Mississippi's example in 1890, in 1898, the white Democratic, planter-dominated legislature passed a new constitution that effectively disfranchised blacks and people of color, by requirements for voter registration, such as poll taxes, residency requirements and literacy tests, whose implementation was directed at reducing black voter registration. The effect was immediate and long lasting. In 1896, there were 130,334 black voters on the rolls and about the same number of white voters, in proportion to the state population, which was evenly divided.

The state population in 1900 was 47% African-American: a total of 652,013 citizens, of whom many in New Orleans were descendants of Creoles of color, the sizeable population of free people of color who had been established long before the Civil War. By 1900, two years after the new constitution, only 5,320 black voters were registered in the state. Because of disfranchisement, by 1910 there were only 730 black voters (less than 0.5 percent of eligible African-American men), despite advances in education and literacy among blacks and people of color. Without being able to vote, blacks were excluded from juries and running for any political office. White Democrats had established one-party Democratic rule, which they maintained in the state for decades deep into the 20th century until Congressional passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act provided federal enforcement of the constitutional right to vote.

In the early decades of the 20th century, thousands of African Americans left Louisiana in the Great Migration north to industrial cities for jobs and education, and to escape Jim Crow society and lynchings. The boll weevil infestation and agricultural problems had cost sharecroppers and farmers their jobs. The mechanization of agriculture also reduced the need for laborers. Beginning in the 1940s, blacks went West to California for jobs in its expanding defense industries.

During some of the Great Depression, Louisiana was led by Governor Huey Long. He was elected to office on populist appeal. Though popular for his public works projects, which provided thousands of jobs to people in need, and for his programs in education and increased suffrage for poor whites, Long was criticized for his allegedly demogogic and autocratic style. He extended patronage control through every branch of Louisiana's state government. Especially controversial were his plans for wealth redistribution in the state. Long's rule ended abruptly when he was assassinated in the state capitol in 1935.

Post World War II (1945–)

Mobilization for World War II created jobs in the state. Thousands of other workers, black and white alike, migrated to California for better jobs in its burgeoning defense industry. Many African Americans left the state in the Second Great Migration, from the 1940s through the 1960s. The mechanization of agriculture in the 1930s had sharply cut the need for laborers. They sought skilled jobs in the defense industry in California, better education for their children, and living opportunities in communities where they could vote.

In the 1950s the state created new requirements for a citizenship test for voter registration. Despite opposition by the States Rights Party, downstate black voters began to increase their rate of registration, which also reflected the growth of their middle classes. Gradually black voter registration and turnout increased to 20% and more, and it was 32% in 1964, when the first civil rights legislation of the era was passed. The percentage of black voters ranged widely in the state during these years, from 93.8% in Evangeline Parish to 1.7% in Tensas Parish, for instance.

Patterns of Jim Crow segregation against African Americans still ruled in Louisiana in the 1960s. Because of the Great Migration of blacks to the north and west, and growth of other groups in the state, by 1960 the proportion of African Americans in Louisiana had dropped to 32%. The 1,039,207 black citizens were adversely affected by segregation and efforts at disfranchisement. African Americans continued to suffer disproportionate discriminatory application of the state's voter registration rules. Because of better opportunities elsewhere, from 1965 to 1970, blacks continued to migrate from Louisiana, for a net loss of more than 37,000 people. During the latter period, some people began to migrate to cities of the New South for opportunities.

In August 2005, New Orleans and many other low-lying parts of the state along the Gulf of Mexico were hit by the catastrophic Hurricane Katrina. It caused widespread damage due to breaching of levees and large-scale flooding of more than 80% of the city. Officials issued warnings to evacuate the city and nearby areas, but tens of thousands of people, mostly African Americans, stayed behind, some stranded, and suffered through the damage of the widespread floodwaters.

Demographics

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Louisiana was 4,625,470 on July 1, 2013, a 2.0% increase since the 2010 United States Census. The population density of the state is 104.9 people per square mile.

The center of population of Louisiana is located in Pointe Coupee Parish, in the city of New Roads.

According to the 2010 United States Census, 5.4% of the population aged 5 and older spoke Spanish at home, up from 3.5% in 2000; and 4.5% spoke French (including Louisiana French and Louisiana Creole), down from 4.8% in 2000.

Race and ethnicity

According to the 2010 US census, the population of Louisiana was:

  • White Americans – 63.7% (59.9% non-Hispanic white, 3.8% White Hispanic)
  • Black or African American – 30.4%
  • Asian – 2.8%
  • Multiracial American – 1.6%
  • Native American – 1.0%
  • some other race – 1.5%
  • Hispanic or Latino of any race - 6.5%

The major ancestry groups of Louisiana are French (16.8%), American (9.5%), German (8.3%), Irish (7.5%), English (6.6%), Italian (4.8%) and Scottish (1.1%).

As of 2011, 49.0% of Louisiana's population younger than age 1 were minorities.

Population centers

  • Louisiana metropolitan areas
  • List of cities, towns, and villages in Louisiana
  • Louisiana locations by per capita income

Economy

The total gross state product in 2010 for Louisiana was US$213.6 billion, placing it 24th in the nation. Its per capita personal income is $30,952, ranking 41st in the United States.

In 2014, Louisiana was ranked as one of the most small business friendly states, based on a study drawing upon data from over 12,000 small business owners.

The state's principal agricultural products include seafood (it is the biggest producer of crawfish in the world, supplying approximately 90%), cotton, soybeans, cattle, sugarcane, poultry and eggs, dairy products, and rice. Industry generates chemical products, petroleum and coal products, processed foods and transportation equipment, and paper products. Tourism is an important element in the economy, especially in the New Orleans area.

The Port of South Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River between New Orleans and Baton Rouge, is the largest volume shipping port in the Western Hemisphere and 4th largest in the world, as well as the largest bulk cargo port in the world.

New Orleans, Shreveport, and Baton Rouge are home to a thriving film industry. State financial incentives since 2002 and aggressive promotion have given Louisiana the nickname "Hollywood South". Because of its distinctive culture within the United States, only Alaska is Louisiana's rival in popularity as a setting for reality television programs. In late 2007 and early 2008, a 300,000-square-foot (28,000 m2) film studio was scheduled to open in Tremé, with state-of-the-art production facilities, and a film training institute. Tabasco sauce, which is marketed by one of the United States' biggest producers of hot sauce, the McIlhenny Company, originated on Avery Island.

Louisiana has three personal income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 6%. The sales tax rate is 4%: a 3.97% Louisiana sales tax and a .03% Louisiana Tourism Promotion District sales tax. Political subdivisions also levy their own sales tax in addition to the state fees. The state also has a use tax, which includes 4% to be distributed by the Department of Revenue to local governments. Property taxes are assessed and collected at the local level. Louisiana is a subsidized state, receiving $1.44 from the federal government for every dollar paid in.

Tourism and culture are major players in Louisiana's economy, earning an estimated $5.2 billion per year. Louisiana also hosts many important cultural events, such as the World Cultural Economic Forum, which is held annually in the fall at the New Orleans Morial Convention Center.

As of September 2014, the state's unemployment rate was 5.8%.

Federal subsidies and spending

Louisiana taxpayers receive more federal funding per dollar of federal taxes paid compared to the average state. Per dollar of federal tax collected in 2005, Louisiana citizens received approximately $1.78 in the way of federal spending. This ranks the state 4th highest nationally and represents a rise from 1995 when Louisiana received $1.35 per dollar of taxes in federal spending (ranked 7th nationally). Neighboring states and the amount of federal spending received per dollar of federal tax collected were: Texas ($0.94), Arkansas ($1.41), and Mississippi ($2.02). Federal spending in 2005 and subsequent years since has been exceptionally high due to the recovery from Hurricane Katrina. Tax Foundation.

Energy

Louisiana is rich in petroleum and natural gas. Petroleum and gas deposits are found in abundance both onshore and offshore in State-owned waters. In addition, vast petroleum and natural gas reserves are found offshore from Louisiana in the federally administered Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in the Gulf of Mexico. According to the Energy Information Administration, the Gulf of Mexico OCS is the largest U.S. petroleum-producing region. Excluding the Gulf of Mexico OCS, Louisiana ranks fourth in petroleum production and is home to about 2 percent of total U.S. petroleum reserves.

Louisiana's natural gas reserves account for about 5 percent of the U.S. total. The recent discovery of the Haynesville Shale formation in parts of or all of Caddo, Bossier, Bienville, Sabine, De Soto, Red River, Sabine, and Natchitoches parishes have made it the world's fourth largest gas field with some wells initially producing over 25 million cubic feet of gas daily.

Louisiana was the first site of petroleum drilling over water in the world, on Caddo Lake in the northwest corner of the state. The petroleum and gas industry, as well as its subsidiary industries such as transport and refining, have dominated Louisiana's economy since the 1940s. Beginning in 1950, Louisiana was sued several times by the U.S. Interior Department, in efforts by the federal government to strip Louisiana of its submerged land property rights. These control vast stores of reservoirs of petroleum and natural gas.

When petroleum and gas boomed in the 1970s, so did Louisiana's economy. The Louisiana economy as well as its politics of the last half-century cannot be understood without thoroughly accounting for the influence of the petroleum and gas industries. Since the 1980s, these industries' headquarters have consolidated in Houston, but many of the jobs that operate or provide logistical support to the U.S. Gulf of Mexico crude-oil-and-gas industry remained in Louisiana as of 2010.

Law and government

In 1849, the state moved the capital from New Orleans to Baton Rouge. Donaldsonville, Opelousas, and Shreveport have briefly served as the seat of Louisiana state government. The Louisiana State Capitol and the Louisiana Governor's Mansion are both located in Baton Rouge.

The current Louisiana governor is Republican Bobby Jindal, the first Indian American to be elected governor. The current U.S. senators are Mary Landrieu (Democrat) and David Vitter (Republican). Louisiana has six congressional districts and is represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by five Republicans and one Democrat. Louisiana had eight votes in the Electoral College for the 2012 election after losing one House seat due to stagnant population growth in the 2010 Census.

Administrative divisions

Louisiana is divided into 64 parishes (the equivalent of counties in most other states).

  • List of parishes in Louisiana
  • Louisiana census statistical areas

Civil law

The Louisiana political and legal structure has maintained several elements from the times of French and Spanish governance. One is the use of the term "parish" (from the French: paroisse) in place of "county" for administrative subdivision. Another is the legal system of civil law based on French, German, and Spanish legal codes and ultimately Roman law – as opposed to English common law.

Louisiana's civil law system is what the majority of nations in the world use, especially in Europe and its former colonies, excluding those that derive from the British Empire. However, it is incorrect to equate the Louisiana Civil Code with the Napoleonic Code. Although the Napoleonic Code and Louisiana law draw from common legal roots, it was never in force in Louisiana, as it was enacted in 1804, after the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.

While the Louisiana Civil Code of 1808 has been continuously revised and updated since its enactment, it is still considered the controlling authority in the state. Differences still exist between Louisianan civil law and the common law found in the other U.S. states. While some of these differences have been bridged due to the strong influence of common law tradition, it is important to note that the "civilian" tradition is still deeply rooted in most aspects of Louisiana private law. Thus property, contractual, business entities structure, much of civil procedure, and family law, as well as some aspects of criminal law, are still mostly based on traditional Roman legal thinking.

Model Codes, such as the Uniform Commercial Code, which are adopted by most states within the union including Louisiana, are based on civilian thought, the essence being that it is deductive, as opposed to the common law which is inductive. In the civilian tradition the legislative body agrees a priori on the general principles to be followed. When a set of facts are brought before a judge, he deduces the court's ruling by comparing the facts of the individual case to the law.

Marriage

In 1997, Louisiana became the first state to offer the option of a traditional marriage or a covenant marriage. In a covenant marriage, the couple waives their right to a "no-fault" divorce after six months of separation, which is available in a traditional marriage. To divorce under a covenant marriage, a couple must demonstrate cause. Marriages between ascendants and descendants and marriages between collaterals within the fourth degree (i.e., siblings, aunt and nephew, uncle and niece, first cousins) are prohibited. Same-sex marriages are also prohibited. Louisiana is a community property state.

Elections

From 1898 to 1965, after Louisiana had effectively disfranchised African Americans and poor whites by provisions of a new constitution, it essentially was a one-party state dominated by elite white Democrats. The franchise for whites was expanded somewhat during the decades, but blacks remained essentially disfranchised until the Civil Rights Movement, culminating in passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In multiple acts of resistance, blacks left the segregation, violence and oppression of the state to seek better opportunities in northern and western industrial cities during the Great Migrations of 1910–1970, markedly reducing their proportion of population in Louisiana.

Since the 1960s, when civil rights legislation was passed under President Lyndon Johnson to protect voting and civil rights, most African Americans in the state have affiliated with the Democratic Party. In the same years, many white conservatives have moved to support Republican Party candidates in national and gubernatorial elections. David Vitter is the first Republican in Louisiana to be popularly elected as a U.S. Senator. The previous Republican Senator, John S. Harris, who took office in 1868, was chosen by the state legislature.

Louisiana is unique among U.S. states in using a system for its state and local elections similar to that of modern France. All candidates, regardless of party affiliation, ran in a nonpartisan blanket primary (or "jungle primary") on Election Day. If no candidate had more than 50% of the vote, the two candidates with the highest vote total competed in a runoff election approximately one month later. This run-off did not take into account party identification; therefore, it was not uncommon for a Democrat to be in a runoff with a fellow Democrat or a Republican to be in a runoff with a fellow Republican.

Congressional races have also been held under the jungle primary system. All other states (except Washington and California) use single-party primaries followed by a general election between party candidates, each conducted by either a plurality voting system or runoff voting, to elect Senators, Representatives, and statewide officials. Between 2008 and 2010, federal congressional elections were run under a closed primary system – limited to registered party members. However, upon the passage of House Bill 292, Louisiana once again adopted a nonpartisan blanket primary for its federal congressional elections.

Louisiana has six seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, five of which are currently held by Republicans and one by a Democrat. The state lost a House seat at the end of the 112th Congress due to stagnant population growth enumerated by the 2010 United States Census. Louisiana is not classified as a "swing state" for future presidential elections, as it regularly supports Republican candidates. The two Senators are Mary Landrieu (D) and David Vitter (R).

Law enforcement

Louisiana's statewide police force is the Louisiana State Police. It began in 1922 from the creation of the Highway Commission. In 1927 a second branch, the Bureau of Criminal Investigations, was formed. In 1932 the State Highway Patrol was authorized to carry weapons.

On July 28, 1936 the two branches were consolidated to form The Louisiana Department of State Police and its motto became "courtesy, loyalty, service". In 1942 this office was abolished and became a division of the Department of Public Safety called the Louisiana State Police. In 1988 the Criminal Investigation Bureau was reorganized. Its troopers have statewide jurisdiction with power to enforce all laws of the state, including city and parish ordinances. Each year, they patrol over 12 million miles (20 million km) of roadway and arrest about 10,000 impaired drivers. The State Police are primarily a traffic enforcement agency, with other sections that delve into trucking safety, narcotics enforcement and gaming oversight.

The sheriff in each parish is the chief law enforcement officer in the parish. They are the keepers of the local parish prisons which house felony and misdemeanor prisoners. They are the primary criminal patrol and first responder agency in all matters criminal and civil. They are also the official tax collectors in each parish.

The sheriffs are responsible for general law enforcement in their respective parishes. Orleans Parish is an exception, as there the general law enforcement duties fall to the New Orleans Police Department. Prior to 2010, Orleans parish was the only parish to have two (2) Sheriff's Offices. Orleans Parish divided Sheriff's duties between criminal and civil, with a different elected sheriff overseeing each aspect. In 2006 a bill was passed which eventually consolidated the two sheriffs' departments into one parish Sheriff responsible for both civil and criminal matters.

Most parishes are governed by a Police Jury. Eighteen of the 64 parishes are governed under an alternative form of government under a Home Rule Charter. They oversee the parish budget and operate the parish maintenance services. This includes parish road maintenance and other rural services.

Louisiana had a higher murder rate than any other U.S. state in 2012 (10.8 murders per 100,000) which marked the 24th consecutive year (1989–2012) that Louisiana has recorded the highest per-capita murder rate among U.S. states. Louisiana is also the only state with an average annual per capita murder rate (14.0 per 100,000) at least twice as high as the U.S. average annual (6.7 per 100,000) during that period according to Bureau of Justice Statistics from FBI Uniform Crime Reports. The Chicago Tribune reports that Louisiana is the most corrupt state in the United States.

According to the Times Picayune, Louisiana is the prison capital of the world, because of its many for-profit/Sheriff owned prisons. Louisiana's incarceration rate is nearly five times Iran's, 13 times China's and 20 times Germany's.

Judiciary

The judiciary of Louisiana is defined under the Constitution and law of Louisiana and is composed of the Louisiana Supreme Court, the Louisiana Circuit Courts of Appeal, the District Courts, the Justice of the Peace Courts, the Mayor's Courts, the City Courts, and the Parish Courts. The Chief Justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court is the chief administrator of the judiciary, and its administration is aided by the Judiciary Commission of Louisiana, the Louisiana Attorney Disciplinary Board, and the Judicial Council of the Supreme Court of Louisiana.

National Guard

Louisiana has over 9,000 Soldiers in the Louisiana Army National Guard including both the 225th Engineer Brigade and the 256th Infantry Brigade. Both these units have seen overseas service in either Iraq, Afghanistan, or both. The Louisiana Air National Guard has over 2,000 airmen and its 159th Fighter Squadron has likewise seen overseas service in combat theaters.

Training sites include Camp Beauregard near Pineville, LA, Camp Villere near Slidell, LA, Camp Minden near Minden, LA, England Air Park (formerly England Air Force Base) near Alexandria, LA, Gillis Long Center near Carville, LA, and Jackson Barracks in New Orleans, LA.

Education

The Louisiana Science Education Act is a controversial law passed by the Louisiana Legislature on June 11, 2008 and signed into law by Governor Bobby Jindal on June 25. The act allows public school teachers to use supplemental materials in the science classroom which are critical of established science on such topics as the theory of evolution and global warming. Louisiana was the first state to pass a law of this type.

Sports

Louisiana is nominally the least populous state with more than one major professional sports league franchise: the National Basketball Association's New Orleans Pelicans and the National Football League's New Orleans Saints. Louisiana has a AAA Minor League baseball team, the New Orleans Zephyrs. The Zephyrs are currently affiliated with the Miami Marlins.

Louisiana has 11 collegiate NCAA Division I programs, a high number given its population. The state has no Division II teams and only one Division III team. The LSU Tigers football team has won 11 Southeastern Conference titles, six Sugar Bowls and three national championships.

Each year New Orleans plays host to the Sugar Bowl and the New Orleans Bowl college football games. Also, the city has hosted the Super Bowl a record seven times, as well as the BCS National Championship Game, NBA All-Star Game and NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship.

The Zurich Classic of New Orleans, is a PGA Tour golf tournament held since 1938. The Rock ‘n’ Roll Mardi Gras Marathon and Crescent City Classic are two road running competitions held at New Orleans.

The State of Louisiana in 2014 produced the most NFL players per capita for the sixth year in a row.

Culture

Louisiana is home to many, especially notable are the distinct culture of the Creoles.

Creole culture

Creole culture is an amalgamation that takes a little from the French, Spanish, African, and Native American cultures. Creole comes from the Portuguese word crioulo, meaning a person of European (specifically French) descent born in the New World. The oldest Louisiana manuscript to use the word Creole, from 1782, applied it to a slave. Today, those descended from both slaves and freemen, French, Spanish, and Native Americans identify as Creole.

Creoles became associated with the New Orleans area. Most wealthy Creole planters had houses in town as well as at their plantations. All of the respective groups that settled in southern Louisiana have combined to make one "New Orleans" culture. It has continued as one of the dominant social, economic and political cultures of Louisiana, well into the 20th century.

Acadian culture

The ancestors of Cajuns came from west central France to the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada, known as Acadia. When the British won the French and Indian War, the British forcibly separated families and evicted them because of their long-stated political neutrality. Most captured Acadians were placed in internment camps in England and the New England colonies for 10 to 30 years. Many of those who escaped the British remained in French Canada.

Once freed by England, many scattered, some to France, Canada, Mexico, or the Falkland Islands. The majority found refuge in south Louisiana centered in the region around Lafayette and the LaFourche Bayou country. Until the 1970s, Cajuns were often considered lower-class citizens, with the term "Cajun" being somewhat derogatory.

Isleño culture

A third distinct culture in Louisiana is that of the Isleños, who are descendants of Spanish Canary Islanders who migrated from the Canary Islands of Spain to Louisiana under the Spanish crown beginning in the mid-1770s. They developed four main communities, but many relocated to what is modern-day St. Bernard Parish. This is where the majority of the Isleño population is still concentrated. An annual festival called Fiesta celebrates the heritage of the Isleños.

St Bernard Parish has an Isleños museum, cemetery and church, as well as many street names with Spanish words and Spanish surnames from this heritage. Isleño identity is an active concern in the New Orleans suburbs of St. Bernard Parish, LA. Some members of the Isleño community still speak Spanish – with their own Canary Islander accent. Numerous Isleño identity red and organizations, and many members of Isleños society keep contact with the Canary Islands of Spain.

Languages

Historically, Native American peoples in the area of spoke seven languages: Caddo, Tunica, Natchez, Houma, Choctaw, Atakapa, and Chitimacha. Of these, only Caddo and Choctaw still have living native speakers, although several other tribes are working to teach and revitalize their languages. Other Native American peoples driven into the state by European pressure spoke Alabama, Biloxi, Koasati, and Ofo languages.

Starting in the 1700s, French colonists brought their language with them. English gradually gained prominence for business and government with migration of English speakers after the Louisiana Purchase, but many ethnic French families continued to use French in private. Two hundred years later, according to the 2000 census, among persons five years old and older, 90.8% of Louisiana residents speak only English (99% total speak English) and 4.7% speak French at home (7% total speak French). Other minority languages are Spanish, which is spoken by 2.5% of the population; Vietnamese, by 0.6%; and German, by 0.2%. Although state law recognizes the usage of English and French in certain circumstances, the Louisiana State Constitution declare that English is "de jure official language" since 1811.

Several unique dialects of French, Creole, and English are spoken in Louisiana. Dialects of the French language are: Colonial French and Houma French. Louisiana Creole French is the term for the one of the Creole languages. Two unique dialects developed of the English language: Louisiana English, a French-influenced variety of English, and what is informally known as Yat, which resembles the New York City dialect, particularly that of historical Brooklyn. Both accents were influenced by large communities of immigrant Irish and Italians, but the Yat dialect, which developed in new Orleans, was also influenced by French and Spanish.

Colonial French is the dominant language of Louisiana during the French colonial period and was spoken primarily by the Creoles settlers. In addition to this dialect the Creoles also spoke Louisiana Creole. The limited years of Spanish rule at the end of the 18th century did not result in widespread adoption of the Spanish language. These two languages, after English, still remain dominant in modern day Louisiana. English and its associated dialects became predominant only after the Louisiana Purchase, when more English-speaking Americans settled in the state. In some regions, English was influenced by French, as seen with Louisiana English. Colonial French although mistakenly named Cajun French by some Cajuns has persisted alongside English.

Renewed interest in the French language in Louisiana has led to the establishment of Canadian-modeled French immersion schools, as well as bilingual signage in the historic French neighborhoods of New Orleans and Lafayette. Organizations such as CODOFIL promote the French language in the state.

Religion

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 1,200,900; Southern Baptist Convention with 709,650; and the United Methodist Church with 146,848. Non-denominational Evangelical Protestant congregations had 195,903 members.

Like other Southern states, the population of Louisiana is also made up of numerous Protestant denominations, comprising 60% of the state's adult population. Protestants are concentrated in the northern and central parts of the state and in the northern tier of the Florida Parishes. Because of French and Spanish heritage, and their descendants the Creoles, and later Irish, Italian, Portuguese and German immigrants, there is a majority Roman Catholic population, particularly in the southern part of the state.

Since Creoles were the first settlers, planters and leaders of the territory, they have traditionally been well represented in politics. For instance, most of the early governors were Creole Catholics. Because Catholics constitute a majority of Louisiana's population, Catholics have continued to be influential in state politics. As of 2008 both Senators and the Governor were Catholic. The high proportion and influence of the Catholic population makes Louisiana distinct among Southern states.

Current religious affiliations of the people of Louisiana is mostly Christian of whom 60% are Protestant, 28% are Roman Catholic, 1% are Jehovah's Witnesses, 1% are Muslim, 1% are Buddhist, 0.6% are Latter-Day Saints, 0.5% are Hindu and 0.5% are Jewish. Non-religious (unaffiliated) people make up 8%.

Jewish communities exist in the state's larger cities, notably Baton Rouge and New Orleans. The most significant of these is the Jewish community of the New Orleans area, with a pre-Katrina population of about 12,000. The presence of a significant Jewish community well established by the early 20th century also made Louisiana unusual among Southern states, although South Carolina and Virginia also had influential populations in some of their major cities from the 18th and 19th centuries.

Prominent Jews in Louisiana's political leadership have included Whig (later Democrat) Judah P. Benjamin (1811–1884), who represented Louisiana in the U.S. Senate prior to the American Civil War and then became the Confederate Secretary of State; Democrat Adolph Meyer (1842–1908), Confederate Army officer who represented the state in the U.S. House from 1891 until his death in 1908; Republican Secretary of State Jay Dardenne (1954–), and Republican (Democrat prior to 2011) Attorney General Buddy Caldwell (1946–).

Music

See also

  • Index of Louisiana-related articles
  • Outline of Louisiana – organized list of topics about Louisiana

References

Bibliography

  • The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana's Cane World, 1820–1860 by Richard Follett, Louisiana State University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8071-3247-0
  • The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1870 by Hugh Thomas. 1997: Simon and Schuster. p. 548.
  • Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World by David Brion Davis 2006: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533944-4
  • Yiannopoulos, A.N., The Civil Codes of Louisiana (reprinted from Civil Law System: Louisiana and Comparative law, A Coursebook: Texts, Cases and Materials, 3d Edition; similar to version in preface to Louisiana Civil Code, ed. by Yiannopoulos)
  • Rodolfo Batiza, "The Louisiana Civil Code of 1808: Its Actual Sources and Present Relevance," 46 TUL. L. REV. 4 (1971); Rodolfo Batiza, "Sources of the Civil Code of 1808, Facts and Speculation: A Rejoinder," 46 TUL. L. REV. 628 (1972); Robert A. Pascal, Sources of the Digest of 1808: A Reply to Professor Batiza, 46 TUL. L. REV. 603 (1972); Joseph M. Sweeney, Tournament of Scholars Over the Sources of the Civil Code of 1808,46 TUL. L. REV. 585 (1972).
  • The standard history of the state, though only through the Civil War, is Charles Gayarré's History of Louisiana' (various editions, culminating in 1866, 4 vols., with a posthumous and further expanded edition in 1885).
  • A number of accounts by 17th- and 18th-century French explorers: Jean-Bernard Bossu, François-Marie Perrin du Lac, Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix, Dumont (as published by Fr. Mascrier), Fr. Louis Hennepin, Lahontan, Louis Narcisse Baudry des Lozières, Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, and Laval. In this group, the explorer Antoine Simon Le Page du Pratz may be the first historian of Louisiana with his Histoire de la Louisiane (3 vols., Paris, 1758; 2 vols., London, 1763)
  • François Xavier Martin's History of Louisiana (2 vols., New Orleans, 1827–1829, later ed. by J. F. Condon, continued to 1861, New Orleans, 1882) is the first scholarly treatment of the subject, along with François Barbé-Marbois' Histoire de la Louisiane et de la cession de colonie par la France aux Etats-Unis (Paris, 1829; in English, Philadelphia, 1830).
  • Alcée Fortier's A History of Louisiana (N.Y., 4 vols., 1904) is the most recent of the large-scale scholarly histories of the state.
  • The official works of Albert Phelps and Grace King, the publications of the Louisiana Historical Society and several works on the history of New Orleans (q.v.), among them those by Henry Rightor and John Smith Kendall provide background.

External links

  • Louisiana at DMOZ
  • Louisiana Geographic Information Center
  • Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities
  • Louisiana Weather and Tides
Geology links
  • Geology
    • Generalized Geologic Map of Louisiana, 2008
    • Generalized Geology of Louisiana (text to Generalized Geologic Map of Louisiana)
    • Loess Map of Louisiana
    • Other Louisiana Geological Maps
    • Louisiana Geofacts
Government
  • Official State of Louisiana website
  • Louisiana State Databases – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Louisiana state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.
  • Census Statistics on Louisiana
U.S. government
  • Energy Profile for Louisiana
  • USDA Louisiana Statistical Facts
  • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Louisiana
  • 1st district: Steve Scalise – Website
  • 2nd district: Cedric Richmond – Website & Campaign Website
  • 3rd district: Jeff Landry – Website
  • 4th district: John C. Fleming –
  • 5th district: Rodney Alexander – Website
  • 6th district: Bill Cassidy
  • 7th district: Charles Boustany – Website
News media
  • The Times-Picayune major Louisiana newspaper
  • WWL-TV Louisiana television station
Ecoregions
  • Ecoregions of Louisiana
  • Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain
Tourism
  • Official site of Louisiana tourism
  • Official site of the New Orleans Convention & Tourism Bureau
  • Official site of New Orleans Plantation Country tourism
  • Geographic data related to Louisiana at OpenStreetMap

318-2082

Comments

avatar 12
Caller Type: Unknown
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2019-02-04 17:38:28

scam

avatar 12
Caller Type: Unknown
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2019-01-19 05:30:55

?

avatar 12
Caller Type: Unknown
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2018-12-12 18:42:18

G I'm

avatar 12
Caller Type: Text Message
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2018-11-16 00:34:02

Several text messages asking for a friend.

avatar 12
Caller Type: Unknown
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2018-10-29 14:52:21

Charge on my bank account and this number is for reference

avatar 12
Caller Type: Unknown
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2018-08-21 20:12:22

Don't

avatar 12
Caller Type: Unknown
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2018-07-17 22:04:11

???¿???¿???????¿??¿?????????????????¿??

avatar 12
Caller Type: Unknown
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2018-07-09 20:21:51

Ok

avatar 12
Caller Type: Unknown
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2018-06-29 20:11:50

Fuck you

avatar 12
Caller Type: Harrassing Call
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2018-06-26 17:57:30

If I find Thelm i'm gonna kick ass

avatar 12
Caller Type: Hung Up
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2018-04-13 17:54:47

Hi

avatar 12
Caller Type: Helpful
posted by Guest in Phone Number 2018-03-16 08:44:48

Ok

Search Phone Number

Your Comment

(1 + 8 = ? )

Similar phone numbers

3182087000 , 318-208-7000 3182087001 , 318-208-7001 3182087002 , 318-208-7002 3182087003 , 318-208-7003 3182087004 , 318-208-7004 3182087005 , 318-208-7005 3182087006 , 318-208-7006 3182087007 , 318-208-7007 3182087008 , 318-208-7008 3182087009 , 318-208-7009 3182087010 , 318-208-7010 3182087011 , 318-208-7011 3182087012 , 318-208-7012 3182087013 , 318-208-7013 3182087014 , 318-208-7014 3182087015 , 318-208-7015 3182087016 , 318-208-7016 3182087017 , 318-208-7017 3182087018 , 318-208-7018 3182087019 , 318-208-7019 3182087020 , 318-208-7020 3182087021 , 318-208-7021 3182087022 , 318-208-7022 3182087023 , 318-208-7023 3182087024 , 318-208-7024 3182087025 , 318-208-7025 3182087026 , 318-208-7026 3182087027 , 318-208-7027 3182087028 , 318-208-7028 3182087029 , 318-208-7029 3182087030 , 318-208-7030 3182087031 , 318-208-7031 3182087032 , 318-208-7032 3182087033 , 318-208-7033 3182087034 , 318-208-7034 3182087035 , 318-208-7035 3182087036 , 318-208-7036 3182087037 , 318-208-7037 3182087038 , 318-208-7038 3182087039 , 318-208-7039 3182087040 , 318-208-7040 3182087041 , 318-208-7041 3182087042 , 318-208-7042 3182087043 , 318-208-7043 3182087044 , 318-208-7044 3182087045 , 318-208-7045 3182087046 , 318-208-7046 3182087047 , 318-208-7047 3182087048 , 318-208-7048 3182087049 , 318-208-7049 3182087050 , 318-208-7050 3182087051 , 318-208-7051 3182087052 , 318-208-7052 3182087053 , 318-208-7053 3182087054 , 318-208-7054 3182087055 , 318-208-7055 3182087056 , 318-208-7056 3182087057 , 318-208-7057 3182087058 , 318-208-7058 3182087059 , 318-208-7059 3182087060 , 318-208-7060 3182087061 , 318-208-7061 3182087062 , 318-208-7062 3182087063 , 318-208-7063 3182087064 , 318-208-7064 3182087065 , 318-208-7065 3182087066 , 318-208-7066 3182087067 , 318-208-7067 3182087068 , 318-208-7068 3182087069 , 318-208-7069 3182087070 , 318-208-7070 3182087071 , 318-208-7071 3182087072 , 318-208-7072 3182087073 , 318-208-7073 3182087074 , 318-208-7074 3182087075 , 318-208-7075 3182087076 , 318-208-7076 3182087077 , 318-208-7077 3182087078 , 318-208-7078 3182087079 , 318-208-7079 3182087080 , 318-208-7080 3182087081 , 318-208-7081 3182087082 , 318-208-7082 3182087083 , 318-208-7083 3182087084 , 318-208-7084 3182087085 , 318-208-7085 3182087086 , 318-208-7086 3182087087 , 318-208-7087 3182087088 , 318-208-7088 3182087089 , 318-208-7089 3182087090 , 318-208-7090 3182087091 , 318-208-7091 3182087092 , 318-208-7092 3182087093 , 318-208-7093 3182087094 , 318-208-7094 3182087095 , 318-208-7095 3182087096 , 318-208-7096 3182087097 , 318-208-7097 3182087098 , 318-208-7098 3182087099 , 318-208-7099 3182087100 , 318-208-7100 3182087101 , 318-208-7101 3182087102 , 318-208-7102 3182087103 , 318-208-7103 3182087104 , 318-208-7104 3182087105 , 318-208-7105 3182087106 , 318-208-7106 3182087107 , 318-208-7107 3182087108 , 318-208-7108 3182087109 , 318-208-7109 3182087110 , 318-208-7110 3182087111 , 318-208-7111 3182087112 , 318-208-7112 3182087113 , 318-208-7113 3182087114 , 318-208-7114 3182087115 , 318-208-7115 3182087116 , 318-208-7116 3182087117 , 318-208-7117 3182087118 , 318-208-7118 3182087119 , 318-208-7119 3182087120 , 318-208-7120 3182087121 , 318-208-7121 3182087122 , 318-208-7122 3182087123 , 318-208-7123 3182087124 , 318-208-7124 3182087125 , 318-208-7125 3182087126 , 318-208-7126 3182087127 , 318-208-7127 3182087128 , 318-208-7128 3182087129 , 318-208-7129 3182087130 , 318-208-7130 3182087131 , 318-208-7131 3182087132 , 318-208-7132 3182087133 , 318-208-7133 3182087134 , 318-208-7134 3182087135 , 318-208-7135 3182087136 , 318-208-7136 3182087137 , 318-208-7137 3182087138 , 318-208-7138 3182087139 , 318-208-7139 3182087140 , 318-208-7140 3182087141 , 318-208-7141 3182087142 , 318-208-7142 3182087143 , 318-208-7143 3182087144 , 318-208-7144 3182087145 , 318-208-7145 3182087146 , 318-208-7146 3182087147 , 318-208-7147 3182087148 , 318-208-7148 3182087149 , 318-208-7149 3182087150 , 318-208-7150 3182087151 , 318-208-7151 3182087152 , 318-208-7152 3182087153 , 318-208-7153 3182087154 , 318-208-7154 3182087155 , 318-208-7155 3182087156 , 318-208-7156 3182087157 , 318-208-7157 3182087158 , 318-208-7158 3182087159 , 318-208-7159 3182087160 , 318-208-7160 3182087161 , 318-208-7161 3182087162 , 318-208-7162 3182087163 , 318-208-7163 3182087164 , 318-208-7164 3182087165 , 318-208-7165 3182087166 , 318-208-7166 3182087167 , 318-208-7167 3182087168 , 318-208-7168 3182087169 , 318-208-7169 3182087170 , 318-208-7170 3182087171 , 318-208-7171 3182087172 , 318-208-7172 3182087173 , 318-208-7173 3182087174 , 318-208-7174 3182087175 , 318-208-7175 3182087176 , 318-208-7176 3182087177 , 318-208-7177 3182087178 , 318-208-7178 3182087179 , 318-208-7179 3182087180 , 318-208-7180 3182087181 , 318-208-7181 3182087182 , 318-208-7182 3182087183 , 318-208-7183 3182087184 , 318-208-7184 3182087185 , 318-208-7185 3182087186 , 318-208-7186 3182087187 , 318-208-7187 3182087188 , 318-208-7188 3182087189 , 318-208-7189 3182087190 , 318-208-7190 3182087191 , 318-208-7191 3182087192 , 318-208-7192 3182087193 , 318-208-7193 3182087194 , 318-208-7194 3182087195 , 318-208-7195 3182087196 , 318-208-7196 3182087197 , 318-208-7197 3182087198 , 318-208-7198 3182087199 , 318-208-7199 3182087200 , 318-208-7200 3182087201 , 318-208-7201 3182087202 , 318-208-7202 3182087203 , 318-208-7203 3182087204 , 318-208-7204 3182087205 , 318-208-7205 3182087206 , 318-208-7206 3182087207 , 318-208-7207 3182087208 , 318-208-7208 3182087209 , 318-208-7209 3182087210 , 318-208-7210 3182087211 , 318-208-7211 3182087212 , 318-208-7212 3182087213 , 318-208-7213 3182087214 , 318-208-7214 3182087215 , 318-208-7215 3182087216 , 318-208-7216 3182087217 , 318-208-7217 3182087218 , 318-208-7218 3182087219 , 318-208-7219 3182087220 , 318-208-7220 3182087221 , 318-208-7221 3182087222 , 318-208-7222 3182087223 , 318-208-7223 3182087224 , 318-208-7224 3182087225 , 318-208-7225 3182087226 , 318-208-7226 3182087227 , 318-208-7227 3182087228 , 318-208-7228 3182087229 , 318-208-7229 3182087230 , 318-208-7230 3182087231 , 318-208-7231 3182087232 , 318-208-7232 3182087233 , 318-208-7233 3182087234 , 318-208-7234 3182087235 , 318-208-7235 3182087236 , 318-208-7236 3182087237 , 318-208-7237 3182087238 , 318-208-7238 3182087239 , 318-208-7239 3182087240 , 318-208-7240 3182087241 , 318-208-7241 3182087242 , 318-208-7242 3182087243 , 318-208-7243 3182087244 , 318-208-7244 3182087245 , 318-208-7245 3182087246 , 318-208-7246 3182087247 , 318-208-7247 3182087248 , 318-208-7248 3182087249 , 318-208-7249 3182087250 , 318-208-7250 3182087251 , 318-208-7251 3182087252 , 318-208-7252 3182087253 , 318-208-7253 3182087254 , 318-208-7254 3182087255 , 318-208-7255 3182087256 , 318-208-7256 3182087257 , 318-208-7257 3182087258 , 318-208-7258 3182087259 , 318-208-7259 3182087260 , 318-208-7260 3182087261 , 318-208-7261 3182087262 , 318-208-7262 3182087263 , 318-208-7263 3182087264 , 318-208-7264 3182087265 , 318-208-7265 3182087266 , 318-208-7266 3182087267 , 318-208-7267 3182087268 , 318-208-7268 3182087269 , 318-208-7269 3182087270 , 318-208-7270 3182087271 , 318-208-7271 3182087272 , 318-208-7272 3182087273 , 318-208-7273 3182087274 , 318-208-7274 3182087275 , 318-208-7275 3182087276 , 318-208-7276 3182087277 , 318-208-7277 3182087278 , 318-208-7278 3182087279 , 318-208-7279 3182087280 , 318-208-7280 3182087281 , 318-208-7281 3182087282 , 318-208-7282 3182087283 , 318-208-7283 3182087284 , 318-208-7284 3182087285 , 318-208-7285 3182087286 , 318-208-7286 3182087287 , 318-208-7287 3182087288 , 318-208-7288 3182087289 , 318-208-7289 3182087290 , 318-208-7290 3182087291 , 318-208-7291 3182087292 , 318-208-7292 3182087293 , 318-208-7293 3182087294 , 318-208-7294 3182087295 , 318-208-7295 3182087296 , 318-208-7296 3182087297 , 318-208-7297 3182087298 , 318-208-7298 3182087299 , 318-208-7299 3182087300 , 318-208-7300 3182087301 , 318-208-7301 3182087302 , 318-208-7302 3182087303 , 318-208-7303 3182087304 , 318-208-7304 3182087305 , 318-208-7305 3182087306 , 318-208-7306 3182087307 , 318-208-7307 3182087308 , 318-208-7308 3182087309 , 318-208-7309 3182087310 , 318-208-7310 3182087311 , 318-208-7311 3182087312 , 318-208-7312 3182087313 , 318-208-7313 3182087314 , 318-208-7314 3182087315 , 318-208-7315 3182087316 , 318-208-7316 3182087317 , 318-208-7317 3182087318 , 318-208-7318 3182087319 , 318-208-7319 3182087320 , 318-208-7320 3182087321 , 318-208-7321 3182087322 , 318-208-7322 3182087323 , 318-208-7323 3182087324 , 318-208-7324 3182087325 , 318-208-7325 3182087326 , 318-208-7326 3182087327 , 318-208-7327 3182087328 , 318-208-7328 3182087329 , 318-208-7329 3182087330 , 318-208-7330 3182087331 , 318-208-7331 3182087332 , 318-208-7332 3182087333 , 318-208-7333 3182087334 , 318-208-7334 3182087335 , 318-208-7335 3182087336 , 318-208-7336 3182087337 , 318-208-7337 3182087338 , 318-208-7338 3182087339 , 318-208-7339 3182087340 , 318-208-7340 3182087341 , 318-208-7341 3182087342 , 318-208-7342 3182087343 , 318-208-7343 3182087344 , 318-208-7344 3182087345 , 318-208-7345 3182087346 , 318-208-7346 3182087347 , 318-208-7347 3182087348 , 318-208-7348 3182087349 , 318-208-7349 3182087350 , 318-208-7350 3182087351 , 318-208-7351 3182087352 , 318-208-7352 3182087353 , 318-208-7353 3182087354 , 318-208-7354 3182087355 , 318-208-7355 3182087356 , 318-208-7356 3182087357 , 318-208-7357 3182087358 , 318-208-7358 3182087359 , 318-208-7359 3182087360 , 318-208-7360 3182087361 , 318-208-7361 3182087362 , 318-208-7362 3182087363 , 318-208-7363 3182087364 , 318-208-7364 3182087365 , 318-208-7365 3182087366 , 318-208-7366 3182087367 , 318-208-7367 3182087368 , 318-208-7368 3182087369 , 318-208-7369 3182087370 , 318-208-7370 3182087371 , 318-208-7371 3182087372 , 318-208-7372 3182087373 , 318-208-7373 3182087374 , 318-208-7374 3182087375 , 318-208-7375 3182087376 , 318-208-7376 3182087377 , 318-208-7377 3182087378 , 318-208-7378 3182087379 , 318-208-7379 3182087380 , 318-208-7380 3182087381 , 318-208-7381 3182087382 , 318-208-7382 3182087383 , 318-208-7383 3182087384 , 318-208-7384 3182087385 , 318-208-7385 3182087386 , 318-208-7386 3182087387 , 318-208-7387 3182087388 , 318-208-7388 3182087389 , 318-208-7389 3182087390 , 318-208-7390 3182087391 , 318-208-7391 3182087392 , 318-208-7392 3182087393 , 318-208-7393 3182087394 , 318-208-7394 3182087395 , 318-208-7395 3182087396 , 318-208-7396 3182087397 , 318-208-7397 3182087398 , 318-208-7398 3182087399 , 318-208-7399 3182087400 , 318-208-7400 3182087401 , 318-208-7401 3182087402 , 318-208-7402 3182087403 , 318-208-7403 3182087404 , 318-208-7404 3182087405 , 318-208-7405 3182087406 , 318-208-7406 3182087407 , 318-208-7407 3182087408 , 318-208-7408 3182087409 , 318-208-7409 3182087410 , 318-208-7410 3182087411 , 318-208-7411 3182087412 , 318-208-7412 3182087413 , 318-208-7413 3182087414 , 318-208-7414 3182087415 , 318-208-7415 3182087416 , 318-208-7416 3182087417 , 318-208-7417 3182087418 , 318-208-7418 3182087419 , 318-208-7419 3182087420 , 318-208-7420 3182087421 , 318-208-7421 3182087422 , 318-208-7422 3182087423 , 318-208-7423 3182087424 , 318-208-7424 3182087425 , 318-208-7425 3182087426 , 318-208-7426 3182087427 , 318-208-7427 3182087428 , 318-208-7428 3182087429 , 318-208-7429 3182087430 , 318-208-7430 3182087431 , 318-208-7431 3182087432 , 318-208-7432 3182087433 , 318-208-7433 3182087434 , 318-208-7434 3182087435 , 318-208-7435 3182087436 , 318-208-7436 3182087437 , 318-208-7437 3182087438 , 318-208-7438 3182087439 , 318-208-7439 3182087440 , 318-208-7440 3182087441 , 318-208-7441 3182087442 , 318-208-7442 3182087443 , 318-208-7443 3182087444 , 318-208-7444 3182087445 , 318-208-7445 3182087446 , 318-208-7446 3182087447 , 318-208-7447 3182087448 , 318-208-7448 3182087449 , 318-208-7449 3182087450 , 318-208-7450 3182087451 , 318-208-7451 3182087452 , 318-208-7452 3182087453 , 318-208-7453 3182087454 , 318-208-7454 3182087455 , 318-208-7455 3182087456 , 318-208-7456 3182087457 , 318-208-7457 3182087458 , 318-208-7458 3182087459 , 318-208-7459 3182087460 , 318-208-7460 3182087461 , 318-208-7461 3182087462 , 318-208-7462 3182087463 , 318-208-7463 3182087464 , 318-208-7464 3182087465 , 318-208-7465 3182087466 , 318-208-7466 3182087467 , 318-208-7467 3182087468 , 318-208-7468 3182087469 , 318-208-7469 3182087470 , 318-208-7470 3182087471 , 318-208-7471 3182087472 , 318-208-7472 3182087473 , 318-208-7473 3182087474 , 318-208-7474 3182087475 , 318-208-7475 3182087476 , 318-208-7476 3182087477 , 318-208-7477 3182087478 , 318-208-7478 3182087479 , 318-208-7479 3182087480 , 318-208-7480 3182087481 , 318-208-7481 3182087482 , 318-208-7482 3182087483 , 318-208-7483 3182087484 , 318-208-7484 3182087485 , 318-208-7485 3182087486 , 318-208-7486 3182087487 , 318-208-7487 3182087488 , 318-208-7488 3182087489 , 318-208-7489 3182087490 , 318-208-7490 3182087491 , 318-208-7491 3182087492 , 318-208-7492 3182087493 , 318-208-7493 3182087494 , 318-208-7494 3182087495 , 318-208-7495 3182087496 , 318-208-7496 3182087497 , 318-208-7497 3182087498 , 318-208-7498 3182087499 , 318-208-7499 3182087500 , 318-208-7500 3182087501 , 318-208-7501 3182087502 , 318-208-7502 3182087503 , 318-208-7503 3182087504 , 318-208-7504 3182087505 , 318-208-7505 3182087506 , 318-208-7506 3182087507 , 318-208-7507 3182087508 , 318-208-7508 3182087509 , 318-208-7509 3182087510 , 318-208-7510 3182087511 , 318-208-7511 3182087512 , 318-208-7512 3182087513 , 318-208-7513 3182087514 , 318-208-7514 3182087515 , 318-208-7515 3182087516 , 318-208-7516 3182087517 , 318-208-7517 3182087518 , 318-208-7518 3182087519 , 318-208-7519 3182087520 , 318-208-7520 3182087521 , 318-208-7521 3182087522 , 318-208-7522 3182087523 , 318-208-7523 3182087524 , 318-208-7524 3182087525 , 318-208-7525 3182087526 , 318-208-7526 3182087527 , 318-208-7527 3182087528 , 318-208-7528 3182087529 , 318-208-7529 3182087530 , 318-208-7530 3182087531 , 318-208-7531 3182087532 , 318-208-7532 3182087533 , 318-208-7533 3182087534 , 318-208-7534 3182087535 , 318-208-7535 3182087536 , 318-208-7536 3182087537 , 318-208-7537 3182087538 , 318-208-7538 3182087539 , 318-208-7539 3182087540 , 318-208-7540 3182087541 , 318-208-7541 3182087542 , 318-208-7542 3182087543 , 318-208-7543 3182087544 , 318-208-7544 3182087545 , 318-208-7545 3182087546 , 318-208-7546 3182087547 , 318-208-7547 3182087548 , 318-208-7548 3182087549 , 318-208-7549 3182087550 , 318-208-7550 3182087551 , 318-208-7551 3182087552 , 318-208-7552 3182087553 , 318-208-7553 3182087554 , 318-208-7554 3182087555 , 318-208-7555 3182087556 , 318-208-7556 3182087557 , 318-208-7557 3182087558 , 318-208-7558 3182087559 , 318-208-7559 3182087560 , 318-208-7560 3182087561 , 318-208-7561 3182087562 , 318-208-7562 3182087563 , 318-208-7563 3182087564 , 318-208-7564 3182087565 , 318-208-7565 3182087566 , 318-208-7566 3182087567 , 318-208-7567 3182087568 , 318-208-7568 3182087569 , 318-208-7569 3182087570 , 318-208-7570 3182087571 , 318-208-7571 3182087572 , 318-208-7572 3182087573 , 318-208-7573 3182087574 , 318-208-7574 3182087575 , 318-208-7575 3182087576 , 318-208-7576 3182087577 , 318-208-7577 3182087578 , 318-208-7578 3182087579 , 318-208-7579 3182087580 , 318-208-7580 3182087581 , 318-208-7581 3182087582 , 318-208-7582 3182087583 , 318-208-7583 3182087584 , 318-208-7584 3182087585 , 318-208-7585 3182087586 , 318-208-7586 3182087587 , 318-208-7587 3182087588 , 318-208-7588 3182087589 , 318-208-7589 3182087590 , 318-208-7590 3182087591 , 318-208-7591 3182087592 , 318-208-7592 3182087593 , 318-208-7593 3182087594 , 318-208-7594 3182087595 , 318-208-7595 3182087596 , 318-208-7596 3182087597 , 318-208-7597 3182087598 , 318-208-7598 3182087599 , 318-208-7599 3182087600 , 318-208-7600 3182087601 , 318-208-7601 3182087602 , 318-208-7602 3182087603 , 318-208-7603 3182087604 , 318-208-7604 3182087605 , 318-208-7605 3182087606 , 318-208-7606 3182087607 , 318-208-7607 3182087608 , 318-208-7608 3182087609 , 318-208-7609 3182087610 , 318-208-7610 3182087611 , 318-208-7611 3182087612 , 318-208-7612 3182087613 , 318-208-7613 3182087614 , 318-208-7614 3182087615 , 318-208-7615 3182087616 , 318-208-7616 3182087617 , 318-208-7617 3182087618 , 318-208-7618 3182087619 , 318-208-7619 3182087620 , 318-208-7620 3182087621 , 318-208-7621 3182087622 , 318-208-7622 3182087623 , 318-208-7623 3182087624 , 318-208-7624 3182087625 , 318-208-7625 3182087626 , 318-208-7626 3182087627 , 318-208-7627 3182087628 , 318-208-7628 3182087629 , 318-208-7629 3182087630 , 318-208-7630 3182087631 , 318-208-7631 3182087632 , 318-208-7632 3182087633 , 318-208-7633 3182087634 , 318-208-7634 3182087635 , 318-208-7635 3182087636 , 318-208-7636 3182087637 , 318-208-7637 3182087638 , 318-208-7638 3182087639 , 318-208-7639 3182087640 , 318-208-7640 3182087641 , 318-208-7641 3182087642 , 318-208-7642 3182087643 , 318-208-7643 3182087644 , 318-208-7644 3182087645 , 318-208-7645 3182087646 , 318-208-7646 3182087647 , 318-208-7647 3182087648 , 318-208-7648 3182087649 , 318-208-7649 3182087650 , 318-208-7650 3182087651 , 318-208-7651 3182087652 , 318-208-7652 3182087653 , 318-208-7653 3182087654 , 318-208-7654 3182087655 , 318-208-7655 3182087656 , 318-208-7656 3182087657 , 318-208-7657 3182087658 , 318-208-7658 3182087659 , 318-208-7659 3182087660 , 318-208-7660 3182087661 , 318-208-7661 3182087662 , 318-208-7662 3182087663 , 318-208-7663 3182087664 , 318-208-7664 3182087665 , 318-208-7665 3182087666 , 318-208-7666 3182087667 , 318-208-7667 3182087668 , 318-208-7668 3182087669 , 318-208-7669 3182087670 , 318-208-7670 3182087671 , 318-208-7671 3182087672 , 318-208-7672 3182087673 , 318-208-7673 3182087674 , 318-208-7674 3182087675 , 318-208-7675 3182087676 , 318-208-7676 3182087677 , 318-208-7677 3182087678 , 318-208-7678 3182087679 , 318-208-7679 3182087680 , 318-208-7680 3182087681 , 318-208-7681 3182087682 , 318-208-7682 3182087683 , 318-208-7683 3182087684 , 318-208-7684 3182087685 , 318-208-7685 3182087686 , 318-208-7686 3182087687 , 318-208-7687 3182087688 , 318-208-7688 3182087689 , 318-208-7689 3182087690 , 318-208-7690 3182087691 , 318-208-7691 3182087692 , 318-208-7692 3182087693 , 318-208-7693 3182087694 , 318-208-7694 3182087695 , 318-208-7695 3182087696 , 318-208-7696 3182087697 , 318-208-7697 3182087698 , 318-208-7698 3182087699 , 318-208-7699 3182087700 , 318-208-7700 3182087701 , 318-208-7701 3182087702 , 318-208-7702 3182087703 , 318-208-7703 3182087704 , 318-208-7704 3182087705 , 318-208-7705 3182087706 , 318-208-7706 3182087707 , 318-208-7707 3182087708 , 318-208-7708 3182087709 , 318-208-7709 3182087710 , 318-208-7710 3182087711 , 318-208-7711 3182087712 , 318-208-7712 3182087713 , 318-208-7713 3182087714 , 318-208-7714 3182087715 , 318-208-7715 3182087716 , 318-208-7716 3182087717 , 318-208-7717 3182087718 , 318-208-7718 3182087719 , 318-208-7719 3182087720 , 318-208-7720 3182087721 , 318-208-7721 3182087722 , 318-208-7722 3182087723 , 318-208-7723 3182087724 , 318-208-7724 3182087725 , 318-208-7725 3182087726 , 318-208-7726 3182087727 , 318-208-7727 3182087728 , 318-208-7728 3182087729 , 318-208-7729 3182087730 , 318-208-7730 3182087731 , 318-208-7731 3182087732 , 318-208-7732 3182087733 , 318-208-7733 3182087734 , 318-208-7734 3182087735 , 318-208-7735 3182087736 , 318-208-7736 3182087737 , 318-208-7737 3182087738 , 318-208-7738 3182087739 , 318-208-7739 3182087740 , 318-208-7740 3182087741 , 318-208-7741 3182087742 , 318-208-7742 3182087743 , 318-208-7743 3182087744 , 318-208-7744 3182087745 , 318-208-7745 3182087746 , 318-208-7746 3182087747 , 318-208-7747 3182087748 , 318-208-7748 3182087749 , 318-208-7749 3182087750 , 318-208-7750 3182087751 , 318-208-7751 3182087752 , 318-208-7752 3182087753 , 318-208-7753 3182087754 , 318-208-7754 3182087755 , 318-208-7755 3182087756 , 318-208-7756 3182087757 , 318-208-7757 3182087758 , 318-208-7758 3182087759 , 318-208-7759 3182087760 , 318-208-7760 3182087761 , 318-208-7761 3182087762 , 318-208-7762 3182087763 , 318-208-7763 3182087764 , 318-208-7764 3182087765 , 318-208-7765 3182087766 , 318-208-7766 3182087767 , 318-208-7767 3182087768 , 318-208-7768 3182087769 , 318-208-7769 3182087770 , 318-208-7770 3182087771 , 318-208-7771 3182087772 , 318-208-7772 3182087773 , 318-208-7773 3182087774 , 318-208-7774 3182087775 , 318-208-7775 3182087776 , 318-208-7776 3182087777 , 318-208-7777 3182087778 , 318-208-7778 3182087779 , 318-208-7779 3182087780 , 318-208-7780 3182087781 , 318-208-7781 3182087782 , 318-208-7782 3182087783 , 318-208-7783 3182087784 , 318-208-7784 3182087785 , 318-208-7785 3182087786 , 318-208-7786 3182087787 , 318-208-7787 3182087788 , 318-208-7788 3182087789 , 318-208-7789 3182087790 , 318-208-7790 3182087791 , 318-208-7791 3182087792 , 318-208-7792 3182087793 , 318-208-7793 3182087794 , 318-208-7794 3182087795 , 318-208-7795 3182087796 , 318-208-7796 3182087797 , 318-208-7797 3182087798 , 318-208-7798 3182087799 , 318-208-7799 3182087800 , 318-208-7800 3182087801 , 318-208-7801 3182087802 , 318-208-7802 3182087803 , 318-208-7803 3182087804 , 318-208-7804 3182087805 , 318-208-7805 3182087806 , 318-208-7806 3182087807 , 318-208-7807 3182087808 , 318-208-7808 3182087809 , 318-208-7809 3182087810 , 318-208-7810 3182087811 , 318-208-7811 3182087812 , 318-208-7812 3182087813 , 318-208-7813 3182087814 , 318-208-7814 3182087815 , 318-208-7815 3182087816 , 318-208-7816 3182087817 , 318-208-7817 3182087818 , 318-208-7818 3182087819 , 318-208-7819 3182087820 , 318-208-7820 3182087821 , 318-208-7821 3182087822 , 318-208-7822 3182087823 , 318-208-7823 3182087824 , 318-208-7824 3182087825 , 318-208-7825 3182087826 , 318-208-7826 3182087827 , 318-208-7827 3182087828 , 318-208-7828 3182087829 , 318-208-7829 3182087830 , 318-208-7830 3182087831 , 318-208-7831 3182087832 , 318-208-7832 3182087833 , 318-208-7833 3182087834 , 318-208-7834 3182087835 , 318-208-7835 3182087836 , 318-208-7836 3182087837 , 318-208-7837 3182087838 , 318-208-7838 3182087839 , 318-208-7839 3182087840 , 318-208-7840 3182087841 , 318-208-7841 3182087842 , 318-208-7842 3182087843 , 318-208-7843 3182087844 , 318-208-7844 3182087845 , 318-208-7845 3182087846 , 318-208-7846 3182087847 , 318-208-7847 3182087848 , 318-208-7848 3182087849 , 318-208-7849 3182087850 , 318-208-7850 3182087851 , 318-208-7851 3182087852 , 318-208-7852 3182087853 , 318-208-7853 3182087854 , 318-208-7854 3182087855 , 318-208-7855 3182087856 , 318-208-7856 3182087857 , 318-208-7857 3182087858 , 318-208-7858 3182087859 , 318-208-7859 3182087860 , 318-208-7860 3182087861 , 318-208-7861 3182087862 , 318-208-7862 3182087863 , 318-208-7863 3182087864 , 318-208-7864 3182087865 , 318-208-7865 3182087866 , 318-208-7866 3182087867 , 318-208-7867 3182087868 , 318-208-7868 3182087869 , 318-208-7869 3182087870 , 318-208-7870 3182087871 , 318-208-7871 3182087872 , 318-208-7872 3182087873 , 318-208-7873 3182087874 , 318-208-7874 3182087875 , 318-208-7875 3182087876 , 318-208-7876 3182087877 , 318-208-7877 3182087878 , 318-208-7878 3182087879 , 318-208-7879 3182087880 , 318-208-7880 3182087881 , 318-208-7881 3182087882 , 318-208-7882 3182087883 , 318-208-7883 3182087884 , 318-208-7884 3182087885 , 318-208-7885 3182087886 , 318-208-7886 3182087887 , 318-208-7887 3182087888 , 318-208-7888 3182087889 , 318-208-7889 3182087890 , 318-208-7890 3182087891 , 318-208-7891 3182087892 , 318-208-7892 3182087893 , 318-208-7893 3182087894 , 318-208-7894 3182087895 , 318-208-7895 3182087896 , 318-208-7896 3182087897 , 318-208-7897 3182087898 , 318-208-7898 3182087899 , 318-208-7899 3182087900 , 318-208-7900 3182087901 , 318-208-7901 3182087902 , 318-208-7902 3182087903 , 318-208-7903 3182087904 , 318-208-7904 3182087905 , 318-208-7905 3182087906 , 318-208-7906 3182087907 , 318-208-7907 3182087908 , 318-208-7908 3182087909 , 318-208-7909 3182087910 , 318-208-7910 3182087911 , 318-208-7911 3182087912 , 318-208-7912 3182087913 , 318-208-7913 3182087914 , 318-208-7914 3182087915 , 318-208-7915 3182087916 , 318-208-7916 3182087917 , 318-208-7917 3182087918 , 318-208-7918 3182087919 , 318-208-7919 3182087920 , 318-208-7920 3182087921 , 318-208-7921 3182087922 , 318-208-7922 3182087923 , 318-208-7923 3182087924 , 318-208-7924 3182087925 , 318-208-7925 3182087926 , 318-208-7926 3182087927 , 318-208-7927 3182087928 , 318-208-7928 3182087929 , 318-208-7929 3182087930 , 318-208-7930 3182087931 , 318-208-7931 3182087932 , 318-208-7932 3182087933 , 318-208-7933 3182087934 , 318-208-7934 3182087935 , 318-208-7935 3182087936 , 318-208-7936 3182087937 , 318-208-7937 3182087938 , 318-208-7938 3182087939 , 318-208-7939 3182087940 , 318-208-7940 3182087941 , 318-208-7941 3182087942 , 318-208-7942 3182087943 , 318-208-7943 3182087944 , 318-208-7944 3182087945 , 318-208-7945 3182087946 , 318-208-7946 3182087947 , 318-208-7947 3182087948 , 318-208-7948 3182087949 , 318-208-7949 3182087950 , 318-208-7950 3182087951 , 318-208-7951 3182087952 , 318-208-7952 3182087953 , 318-208-7953 3182087954 , 318-208-7954 3182087955 , 318-208-7955 3182087956 , 318-208-7956 3182087957 , 318-208-7957 3182087958 , 318-208-7958 3182087959 , 318-208-7959 3182087960 , 318-208-7960 3182087961 , 318-208-7961 3182087962 , 318-208-7962 3182087963 , 318-208-7963 3182087964 , 318-208-7964 3182087965 , 318-208-7965 3182087966 , 318-208-7966 3182087967 , 318-208-7967 3182087968 , 318-208-7968 3182087969 , 318-208-7969 3182087970 , 318-208-7970 3182087971 , 318-208-7971 3182087972 , 318-208-7972 3182087973 , 318-208-7973 3182087974 , 318-208-7974 3182087975 , 318-208-7975 3182087976 , 318-208-7976 3182087977 , 318-208-7977 3182087978 , 318-208-7978 3182087979 , 318-208-7979 3182087980 , 318-208-7980 3182087981 , 318-208-7981 3182087982 , 318-208-7982 3182087983 , 318-208-7983 3182087984 , 318-208-7984 3182087985 , 318-208-7985 3182087986 , 318-208-7986 3182087987 , 318-208-7987 3182087988 , 318-208-7988 3182087989 , 318-208-7989 3182087990 , 318-208-7990 3182087991 , 318-208-7991 3182087992 , 318-208-7992 3182087993 , 318-208-7993 3182087994 , 318-208-7994 3182087995 , 318-208-7995 3182087996 , 318-208-7996 3182087997 , 318-208-7997 3182087998 , 318-208-7998 3182087999 , 318-208-7999 3182088000 , 318-208-8000 3182088001 , 318-208-8001 3182088002 , 318-208-8002 3182088003 , 318-208-8003 3182088004 , 318-208-8004 3182088005 , 318-208-8005 3182088006 , 318-208-8006 3182088007 , 318-208-8007 3182088008 , 318-208-8008 3182088009 , 318-208-8009 3182088010 , 318-208-8010 3182088011 , 318-208-8011 3182088012 , 318-208-8012 3182088013 , 318-208-8013 3182088014 , 318-208-8014 3182088015 , 318-208-8015 3182088016 , 318-208-8016 3182088017 , 318-208-8017 3182088018 , 318-208-8018 3182088019 , 318-208-8019 3182088020 , 318-208-8020 3182088021 , 318-208-8021 3182088022 , 318-208-8022 3182088023 , 318-208-8023 3182088024 , 318-208-8024 3182088025 , 318-208-8025 3182088026 , 318-208-8026 3182088027 , 318-208-8027 3182088028 , 318-208-8028 3182088029 , 318-208-8029 3182088030 , 318-208-8030 3182088031 , 318-208-8031 3182088032 , 318-208-8032 3182088033 , 318-208-8033 3182088034 , 318-208-8034 3182088035 , 318-208-8035 3182088036 , 318-208-8036 3182088037 , 318-208-8037 3182088038 , 318-208-8038 3182088039 , 318-208-8039 3182088040 , 318-208-8040 3182088041 , 318-208-8041 3182088042 , 318-208-8042 3182088043 , 318-208-8043 3182088044 , 318-208-8044 3182088045 , 318-208-8045 3182088046 , 318-208-8046 3182088047 , 318-208-8047 3182088048 , 318-208-8048 3182088049 , 318-208-8049 3182088050 , 318-208-8050 3182088051 , 318-208-8051 3182088052 , 318-208-8052 3182088053 , 318-208-8053 3182088054 , 318-208-8054 3182088055 , 318-208-8055 3182088056 , 318-208-8056 3182088057 , 318-208-8057 3182088058 , 318-208-8058 3182088059 , 318-208-8059 3182088060 , 318-208-8060 3182088061 , 318-208-8061 3182088062 , 318-208-8062 3182088063 , 318-208-8063 3182088064 , 318-208-8064 3182088065 , 318-208-8065 3182088066 , 318-208-8066 3182088067 , 318-208-8067 3182088068 , 318-208-8068 3182088069 , 318-208-8069 3182088070 , 318-208-8070 3182088071 , 318-208-8071 3182088072 , 318-208-8072 3182088073 , 318-208-8073 3182088074 , 318-208-8074 3182088075 , 318-208-8075 3182088076 , 318-208-8076 3182088077 , 318-208-8077 3182088078 , 318-208-8078 3182088079 , 318-208-8079 3182088080 , 318-208-8080 3182088081 , 318-208-8081 3182088082 , 318-208-8082 3182088083 , 318-208-8083 3182088084 , 318-208-8084 3182088085 , 318-208-8085 3182088086 , 318-208-8086 3182088087 , 318-208-8087 3182088088 , 318-208-8088 3182088089 , 318-208-8089 3182088090 , 318-208-8090 3182088091 , 318-208-8091 3182088092 , 318-208-8092 3182088093 , 318-208-8093 3182088094 , 318-208-8094 3182088095 , 318-208-8095 3182088096 , 318-208-8096 3182088097 , 318-208-8097 3182088098 , 318-208-8098 3182088099 , 318-208-8099 3182088100 , 318-208-8100 3182088101 , 318-208-8101 3182088102 , 318-208-8102 3182088103 , 318-208-8103 3182088104 , 318-208-8104 3182088105 , 318-208-8105 3182088106 , 318-208-8106 3182088107 , 318-208-8107 3182088108 , 318-208-8108 3182088109 , 318-208-8109 3182088110 , 318-208-8110 3182088111 , 318-208-8111 3182088112 , 318-208-8112 3182088113 , 318-208-8113 3182088114 , 318-208-8114 3182088115 , 318-208-8115 3182088116 , 318-208-8116 3182088117 , 318-208-8117 3182088118 , 318-208-8118 3182088119 , 318-208-8119 3182088120 , 318-208-8120 3182088121 , 318-208-8121 3182088122 , 318-208-8122 3182088123 , 318-208-8123 3182088124 , 318-208-8124 3182088125 , 318-208-8125 3182088126 , 318-208-8126 3182088127 , 318-208-8127 3182088128 , 318-208-8128 3182088129 , 318-208-8129 3182088130 , 318-208-8130 3182088131 , 318-208-8131 3182088132 , 318-208-8132 3182088133 , 318-208-8133 3182088134 , 318-208-8134 3182088135 , 318-208-8135 3182088136 , 318-208-8136 3182088137 , 318-208-8137 3182088138 , 318-208-8138 3182088139 , 318-208-8139 3182088140 , 318-208-8140 3182088141 , 318-208-8141 3182088142 , 318-208-8142 3182088143 , 318-208-8143 3182088144 , 318-208-8144 3182088145 , 318-208-8145 3182088146 , 318-208-8146 3182088147 , 318-208-8147 3182088148 , 318-208-8148 3182088149 , 318-208-8149 3182088150 , 318-208-8150 3182088151 , 318-208-8151 3182088152 , 318-208-8152 3182088153 , 318-208-8153 3182088154 , 318-208-8154 3182088155 , 318-208-8155 3182088156 , 318-208-8156 3182088157 , 318-208-8157 3182088158 , 318-208-8158 3182088159 , 318-208-8159 3182088160 , 318-208-8160 3182088161 , 318-208-8161 3182088162 , 318-208-8162 3182088163 , 318-208-8163 3182088164 , 318-208-8164 3182088165 , 318-208-8165 3182088166 , 318-208-8166 3182088167 , 318-208-8167 3182088168 , 318-208-8168 3182088169 , 318-208-8169 3182088170 , 318-208-8170 3182088171 , 318-208-8171 3182088172 , 318-208-8172 3182088173 , 318-208-8173 3182088174 , 318-208-8174 3182088175 , 318-208-8175 3182088176 , 318-208-8176 3182088177 , 318-208-8177 3182088178 , 318-208-8178 3182088179 , 318-208-8179 3182088180 , 318-208-8180 3182088181 , 318-208-8181 3182088182 , 318-208-8182 3182088183 , 318-208-8183 3182088184 , 318-208-8184 3182088185 , 318-208-8185 3182088186 , 318-208-8186 3182088187 , 318-208-8187 3182088188 , 318-208-8188 3182088189 , 318-208-8189 3182088190 , 318-208-8190 3182088191 , 318-208-8191 3182088192 , 318-208-8192 3182088193 , 318-208-8193 3182088194 , 318-208-8194 3182088195 , 318-208-8195 3182088196 , 318-208-8196 3182088197 , 318-208-8197 3182088198 , 318-208-8198 3182088199 , 318-208-8199 3182088200 , 318-208-8200 3182088201 , 318-208-8201 3182088202 , 318-208-8202 3182088203 , 318-208-8203 3182088204 , 318-208-8204 3182088205 , 318-208-8205 3182088206 , 318-208-8206 3182088207 , 318-208-8207 3182088208 , 318-208-8208 3182088209 , 318-208-8209 3182088210 , 318-208-8210 3182088211 , 318-208-8211 3182088212 , 318-208-8212 3182088213 , 318-208-8213 3182088214 , 318-208-8214 3182088215 , 318-208-8215 3182088216 , 318-208-8216 3182088217 , 318-208-8217 3182088218 , 318-208-8218 3182088219 , 318-208-8219 3182088220 , 318-208-8220 3182088221 , 318-208-8221 3182088222 , 318-208-8222 3182088223 , 318-208-8223 3182088224 , 318-208-8224 3182088225 , 318-208-8225 3182088226 , 318-208-8226 3182088227 , 318-208-8227 3182088228 , 318-208-8228 3182088229 , 318-208-8229 3182088230 , 318-208-8230 3182088231 , 318-208-8231 3182088232 , 318-208-8232 3182088233 , 318-208-8233 3182088234 , 318-208-8234 3182088235 , 318-208-8235 3182088236 , 318-208-8236 3182088237 , 318-208-8237 3182088238 , 318-208-8238 3182088239 , 318-208-8239 3182088240 , 318-208-8240 3182088241 , 318-208-8241 3182088242 , 318-208-8242 3182088243 , 318-208-8243 3182088244 , 318-208-8244 3182088245 , 318-208-8245 3182088246 , 318-208-8246 3182088247 , 318-208-8247 3182088248 , 318-208-8248 3182088249 , 318-208-8249 3182088250 , 318-208-8250